Code of the District of Columbia

§ 29–301.03. Notice and other communications.

(a) Notice under this chapter must be in writing unless oral notice is reasonable under the circumstances. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, words in a notice or other communication under this chapter must be in English.

(b) A notice or other communication may be given or sent by any method of delivery, except that electronic transmissions must be sent in accordance with this section. If these methods of communication are impracticable, a notice or other communication may be communicated by a newspaper of general circulation in the area where published, or by radio, television, or other form of public broadcast communication.

(c) Notice or other communication to a domestic or a registered foreign corporation may be delivered to its registered agent at its registered office or to the secretary of the corporation at its principal office shown in its most recent annual report or, in the case of a foreign corporation that has not yet delivered an annual report, in its application for a certificate of registration.

(d) Notice or other communications may be delivered by electronic transmission if:

(1) The recipient consents or if authorized by subsection (k) of this section;

(2) The electronic transmission contains or is accompanied by information from which the recipient can determine the date of the transmission; and

(3) The transmission was authorized by the sender.

(e) Consent under subsection (d) of this section may be revoked by giving written or electronic notice to the original recipient of the consent. Any such consent is deemed revoked if:

(1) Two consecutive electronic transmissions are undeliverable; and

(2) The secretary, assistant secretary, transfer agent, or other person responsible for the provision of notice or other communications knows of the delivery failure. Any inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

(f) Unless otherwise agreed between sender and recipient, an electronic transmission is considered received when:

(1) It enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purposes of receiving electronic transmissions or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic transmission; and

(2) It is in a form capable of being processed by that system.

(g) Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in subsection (f )(1) of this section establishes that an electronic transmission was received but, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.

(h) An electronic transmission is considered received under this section even if no individual is aware of its receipt.

(i) Notice or other communication, if in a comprehensible form or manner, is effective at the earliest of the following:

(1) If in physical form, when it is left at:

(A) A shareholder’s address shown on the corporation’s record of shareholders maintained by the corporation under § 29-313.01(c);

(B) A director’s residence or usual place of business; or

(C) The corporation’s principal place of business;

(2) If mailed postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a shareholder upon deposit in the United States mail;

(3) If mailed by United States mail postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a recipient other than a shareholder, the earliest of the following:

(A) If sent by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, the date the return receipt is signed by or on behalf of the addressee; or

(B) 5 days after it is deposited in the United States mail;

(4) If an electronic transmission, when it is received as provided in subsection (f) of this section; and

(5) If oral, when communicated.

(j) A notice or other communication may be in the form of an electronic transmission that cannot be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice only if:

(1) The electronic transmission is otherwise retrievable in perceivable form; and

(2) The sender and the recipient have consented in writing to the use of such form of electronic transmission.

(k) If this title prescribes requirements for notices or other communications in particular circumstances, those requirements govern. If articles of incorporation or bylaws prescribe requirements for notices or other communications, not inconsistent with this section or other provisions of this title, those requirements govern. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may authorize or require delivery of notices of meetings of directors by electronic transmission.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(c)(2), 59 DCR 13171.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-305.24.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 rewrote the section.

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.