Code of the District of Columbia

§ 31–501. Credit allowed a domestic ceding insurer.

(a)(1) Credit for reinsurance shall be allowed a domestic ceding insurer as either an asset or a reduction from liability on account of reinsurance ceded only when the reinsurer meets the requirements of subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) of this section.

(2) Credit shall be allowed under subsections (b), (c), or (d) of this section only in respect to cessions of those kinds or classes of business that the assuming insurer is licensed or otherwise permitted to write or assume in its state of domicile or, in the case of a United States branch of an alien assuming insurer, in the state through which it is entered and is licensed to transact insurance or reinsurance.

(3) Credit shall be allowed under subsections (d) or (e) of this section only if the applicable requirements of subsection (h) of this section have been satisfied.

(b) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer that is licensed to transact insurance or reinsurance in the District.

(c) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer that is accredited by the Commissioner of the Department of Insurance, Securities, and Banking (“Commissioner”) as a reinsurer in the District. To be eligible for accreditation, a reinsurer shall:

(1) File with the Commissioner evidence of its submission to the District’s jurisdiction;

(2) Submit to the District’s authority to examine its books and records;

(3) Be licensed to transact insurance or reinsurance in at least one state, or, in the case of a United States branch of an alien assuming insurer, entered through and licensed to transact insurance or reinsurance in at least one state;

(4) File annually with the Commissioner a copy of its annual statement filed with the insurance department of its state of domicile and a copy of its most recent audited financial statement; and

(5) Demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that it has adequate financial capacity to meet its reinsurance obligations and is otherwise qualified to assume reinsurance from domestic insurers. An assuming insurer is deemed to meet this requirement as of the time of its application if it maintains a surplus as regards policyholders in an amount not less than $20 million and its accreditation has not been denied by the Commissioner within 90 days after submission of its application.

(d)(1) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer that is domiciled in, or, in the case of a United States branch of an alien assuming insurer, is entered through a state that employs standards regarding credit for reinsurance substantially similar to those applicable under this statute, and the assuming insurer or United States branch of an alien assuming insurer:

(A) Maintains a surplus as regards policyholders in an amount not less than $20 million; and

(B) Submits to the authority of the District to examine its books and records.

(2) The requirement of paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection does not apply to reinsurance ceded and assumed pursuant to pooling arrangements among insurers in the same holding company system.

(e)(1) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer that maintains a trust fund in a qualified United States financial institution, as defined in § 31-503(b), for the payment of the valid claims of its United States ceding insurers, their assigns, and successors in interest. To enable the Commissioner to determine the sufficiency of the trust fund, the assuming insurer shall report annually to the Commissioner information substantially the same as that required to be reported on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Annual Statement form by licensed insurers. The assuming insurer shall submit to examination of its books and records by the Commissioner and bear the expense of the examination.

(2)(A) Credit for reinsurance shall not be granted under this subsection unless the form of the trust and any amendments to the trust have been approved by the commissioner of the state where the trust is domiciled or the commissioner of another state who, pursuant to the terms of the trust instrument, has accepted principal regulatory oversight of the trust.

(B) The form of the trust and any trust amendments shall also be filed with the commissioner of every state in which the ceding insurer beneficiaries of the trust are domiciled. The trust instrument shall provide that contested claims shall be valid and enforceable upon the final order of any court of competent jurisdiction in the United States. The trust shall vest legal title to its assets in its trustees for the benefit of the assuming insurer’s United States ceding insurers, their assigns, and successors in interest. The trust and the assuming insurer shall be subject to examination as determined by the Commissioner.

(C) The trust shall remain in effect for as long as the assuming insurer has outstanding obligations due under the reinsurance agreements subject to the trust. No later than February 28 of each year, the trustee of the trust shall report to the Commissioner in writing the balance of the trust and a listing of the trust’s investments as of December 31 of the preceding year and shall certify the date of termination of the trust, if so planned, or certify that the trust will not expire before December 31 of that year.

(3) The following requirements apply to the following categories of assuming insurer:

(A) The trust fund for a single assuming insurer shall consist of funds in trust in an amount not less than the assuming insurer’s liabilities attributable to reinsurance ceded by United States ceding insurers, and, in addition, the assuming insurer shall maintain a trusteed surplus of not less than $20 million, except as provided for in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

(B)(i) At any time after the assuming insurer has permanently discontinued underwriting new business secured by the trust for at least 3 full years, the commissioner with principal regulatory oversight of the trust may authorize a reduction in the required trusteed surplus, but only after a finding, based on an assessment of the risk, that the new required surplus level is adequate for the protection of United States ceding insurers, policyholders, and claimants in light of reasonably foreseeable adverse loss development. The risk assessment may involve an actuarial review, including an independent analysis of reserves and cash flows and shall consider all material risk factors, including, when applicable, the lines of business involved, the stability of the incurred loss estimates, and the effect of the surplus requirements on the assuming insurer’s liquidity or solvency.

(ii) The minimum required trusteed surplus shall not be reduced to an amount of less than 30% of the assuming insurer’s liabilities attributable to reinsurance ceded by United States ceding insurers covered by the trust.

(4)(A) In the case of a group including incorporated and individual unincorporated underwriters:

(i) For reinsurance ceded under reinsurance agreements with an inception, amendment, or renewal date on or after August 1, 1995, the trust shall consist of a trusteed account in an amount not less than the group’s respective underwriters’ several liabilities attributable to business ceded by United States domiciled ceding insurers to any member underwriter of the group;

(ii) For reinsurance ceded under reinsurance agreements with an inception date on or before July 31, 1995, and not amended or renewed after that date, notwithstanding the other provisions of this chapter, the trust shall consist of a trusteed account in an amount not less than the group’s respective underwriters’ several insurance and reinsurance liabilities attributable to business written in the United States; and

(iii) In addition to these trusts, the group shall maintain in trust a trusteed surplus of which $100 million shall be held jointly for the benefit of the United States domiciled ceding insurers of any member of the group for all years of account.

(B) The incorporated members of the group shall not be engaged in any business other than underwriting as a member of the group and shall be subject to the same level of regulation and solvency control by the group’s domiciliary regulator as are the unincorporated members.

(C) Within 90 days after its financial statements are due to be filed with the group’s domiciliary regulator, the group shall provide to the Commissioner an annual certification by the group’s domiciliary regulator of the solvency of each underwriter member or, if a certification is unavailable, financial statements prepared by independent public accountants of each underwriter member of the group.

(5) In the case of a group of incorporated underwriters under common administration, the group shall:

(A) Have continuously transacted an insurance business outside the United States for at least 3 years immediately before making application for accreditation;

(B) Maintain aggregate policyholders’ surplus of at least $10 billion;

(C) Maintain a trust fund in an amount not less than the group’s several liabilities attributable to business ceded by United States domiciled ceding insurers to any member of the group pursuant to reinsurance contracts issued in the name of the group;

(D) Maintain a joint trusteed surplus of which $100 million shall be held jointly for the benefit of the United States domiciled ceding insurers of any member of the group as additional security for these liabilities; and

(E) Within 90 days after its financial statements are due to be filed with the group’s domiciliary regulator, make available to the Commissioner an annual certification of each underwriter member’s solvency by the member’s domiciliary regulator and financial statements of each underwriter member of the group prepared by its independent public accountant.

(f)(1) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer that has been certified by the Commissioner as a reinsurer in this state and secures its obligations in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

(2) To be eligible for certification, the assuming insurer shall meet the following requirements:

(A) Be domiciled and licensed to transact insurance or reinsurance in a qualified jurisdiction, as determined by the Commissioner pursuant to paragraph (4) of this subsection;

(B) Maintain minimum capital and surplus, or its equivalent, in an amount to be determined by the Commissioner pursuant to regulation;

(C) Maintain financial strength ratings from 2 or more rating agencies deemed acceptable by the Commissioner pursuant to regulation;

(D) Submit to the jurisdiction of the District, appoint the Commissioner as its agent for service of process in the District, and agree to provide security for 100% of the assuming insurer’s liabilities attributable to reinsurance ceded by United States ceding insurers if it resists enforcement of a final United States judgment;

(E) Meet all applicable information filing requirements as determined by the Commissioner, both with respect to an initial application for certification and on an ongoing basis; and

(F) Satisfy any other requirements for certification considered relevant by the Commissioner.

(3) An association, including incorporated and individual unincorporated underwriters, may be a certified reinsurer. To be eligible for certification, in addition to satisfying requirements of paragraph (2) of this subsection:

(A) The association shall satisfy its minimum capital and surplus requirements through the capital and surplus equivalents of the association and its members, which shall include a joint central fund that may be applied to any unsatisfied obligation of the association or any of its members, in an amount determined by the Commissioner to provide adequate protection;

(B) The incorporated members of the association shall not be engaged in any business other than underwriting as a member of the association and shall be subject to the same level of regulation and solvency control by the association’s domiciliary regulator as are the unincorporated members; and

(C) Within 90 days after its financial statements are due to be filed with the association’s domiciliary regulator, the association shall provide to the Commissioner an annual certification by the association’s domiciliary regulator of the solvency of each underwriter member or, if a certification is unavailable, financial statements prepared by independent public accountants of each underwriter member of the association.

(4)(A) The Commissioner shall create and publish a list of qualified jurisdictions under which an assuming insurer licensed and domiciled in such jurisdiction shall be eligible to be considered for certification by the Commissioner as a certified reinsurer.

(B)(i) To determine whether the domiciliary jurisdiction of a non-United States assuming insurer is eligible to be recognized as a qualified jurisdiction, the Commissioner shall evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of the reinsurance supervisory system of the jurisdiction, both initially and on an ongoing basis, and consider the rights, benefits, and the extent of reciprocal recognition afforded by the non-United States jurisdiction to reinsurers licensed and domiciled in the United States. A qualified jurisdiction must agree to share information and cooperate with the Commissioner with respect to all certified reinsurers domiciled within that jurisdiction.

(ii) A jurisdiction may not be recognized as a qualified jurisdiction if the Commissioner has determined that the jurisdiction does not adequately and promptly enforce final United States judgments and arbitration awards. Additional factors may be considered at the discretion of the Commissioner.

(C)(i) A list of qualified jurisdictions shall be published through the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Committee Process. The Commissioner shall consider this list in determining qualified jurisdictions.

(ii) If the Commissioner approves a jurisdiction as qualified that does not appear on the list of qualified jurisdictions, the Commissioner shall provide thoroughly documented justification in accordance with criteria to be developed under regulations.

(D) United States jurisdictions that meet the requirement for accreditation under the National Association of Insurance Commissioners financial standards and accreditation program shall be recognized as qualified jurisdictions.

(E) If a certified reinsurer’s domiciliary jurisdiction ceases to be a qualified jurisdiction, the Commissioner has the discretion to suspend the reinsurer’s certification indefinitely, in lieu of revocation.

(5) The Commissioner shall assign a rating to each certified reinsurer, giving due consideration to the financial strength ratings that have been assigned by rating agencies deemed acceptable to the Commissioner pursuant to regulation. The Commissioner shall publish a list of all certified reinsurers and their ratings.

(6)(A) A certified reinsurer shall secure obligations assumed from United States ceding insurers under this subsection at a level consistent with its rating, as specified in regulations promulgated by the Commissioner.

(B) For a domestic ceding insurer to qualify for full financial statement credit for reinsurance ceded to a certified reinsurer, the certified reinsurer shall maintain security in a form acceptable to the Commissioner and consistent with the provisions of § 31-502, or in a multi-beneficiary trust in accordance with subsection (e) of this section, except as otherwise provided in this subsection.

(C) If a certified reinsurer maintains a trust to fully secure its obligations subject to subsection (e) of this section and chooses to secure its obligations incurred as a certified reinsurer in the form of a multi-beneficiary trust, the certified reinsurer shall maintain separate trust accounts for its obligations incurred under reinsurance agreements issued or renewed as a certified reinsurer with reduced security as permitted by this subsection or comparable laws of other United States jurisdictions and for its obligations, subject to subsection (e) of this section. It shall be a condition to the grant of certification under this subsection that the certified reinsurer shall have bound itself, by the language of the trust and agreement with the commissioner with principal regulatory oversight of each such trust account, to fund, upon termination of any such trust account, out of the remaining surplus of such trust, any deficiency of any other such trust account.

(D) The minimum trusteed surplus requirements provided in subsection (e) of this section are not applicable with respect to a multi-beneficiary trust maintained by a certified reinsurer for the purpose of securing obligations incurred under this subsection, except that such trust shall maintain a minimum trusteed surplus of $10 million.

(E) With respect to obligations incurred by a certified reinsurer under this subsection, if the security is insufficient, the Commissioner shall reduce the allowable credit by an amount proportionate to the deficiency. The Commissioner has the discretion to impose further reductions in allowable credit upon finding that there is a material risk that the certified reinsurer’s obligations will not be paid in full when due.

(F)(i) For the purposes of this subsection, a certified reinsurer whose certification has been terminated for any reason shall be treated as a certified reinsurer required to secure 100% of its obligations.

(ii) For the purposes of this subsection, the term “terminated” refers to revocation, suspension, voluntary surrender, and inactive status.

(iii) If the Commissioner continues to assign a higher rating as permitted by other provisions of this section, this requirement shall not apply to a certified reinsurer in inactive status or to a reinsurer whose certification has been suspended.

(7) If an applicant for certification has been certified as a reinsurer in a National Association of Insurance Commissioners accredited jurisdiction, the Commissioner has the discretion to defer to that jurisdiction’s certification and has the discretion to defer to the rating assigned by that jurisdiction, and such assuming insurer shall be considered to be a certified reinsurer in this state.

(8)(A) A certified reinsurer that ceases to assume new business in the District may request to maintain its certification in inactive status in order to continue to qualify for a reduction in security for its in-force business.

(B) An inactive certified reinsurer shall continue to comply with all applicable requirements of this subsection.

(C) The Commissioner shall assign a rating that takes into account, if relevant, the reasons why the reinsurer is not assuming new business.

(g) Credit shall be allowed when the reinsurance is ceded to an assuming insurer not meeting the requirements of subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section, but only as to the insurance of risks located in jurisdictions where the reinsurance is required by applicable law or regulation of that jurisdiction.

(h)(1) If the assuming insurer is not licensed, accredited, or certified to transact insurance or reinsurance in this state, the credit permitted by subsections (c) and (d) of this section shall not be allowed unless the assuming insurer agrees in the reinsurance agreements:

(A) That in the event of the failure of the assuming insurer to perform its obligations under the terms of the reinsurance agreement, the assuming insurer, at the request of the ceding insurer, shall submit to the jurisdiction of any court of competent jurisdiction in any state of the United States, comply with all requirements necessary to give the court jurisdiction, and abide by the final decision of the court or of any appellate court in the event of an appeal; and

(B) To designate the Commissioner or a designated attorney as its true and lawful attorney upon whom may be served any lawful process in any action, suit, or proceeding instituted by or on behalf of the ceding company insurer.

(2) This subsection is not intended to conflict with or override the obligation of the parties to a reinsurance agreement to arbitrate their disputes if this obligation is created in the agreement.

(i) If the assuming insurer does not meet the requirements of subsections (b), (c), or (d) of this subsection, the credit permitted by subsection (e) or (f) of this section shall not be allowed unless the assuming insurer agrees in the trust agreements to the following conditions:

(1) Notwithstanding any other provisions in the trust instrument, if the trust fund is inadequate because it contains an amount less than the amount required by subsection (e)(3) of this section, or if the grantor of the trust has been declared insolvent or placed into receivership, rehabilitation, liquidation, or similar proceeding under the laws of its state or country of domicile, the trustee shall comply with an order of the commissioner with regulatory oversight over the trust or with an order of a court of competent jurisdiction directing the trustee to transfer to the commissioner with regulatory oversight all of the assets of the trust fund.

(2) The assets shall be distributed by and claims shall be filed with and valued by the commissioner with regulatory oversight in accordance with the laws of the state in which the trust is domiciled that are applicable to the liquidation of domestic insurance companies.

(3) If the commissioner with regulatory oversight determines that the assets of the trust fund or any part thereof are not necessary to satisfy the claims of the United States ceding insurers of the grantor of the trust, the assets or part thereof shall be returned by the commissioner with regulatory oversight to the trustee for distribution in accordance with the trust agreement.

(4) The grantor shall waive any right otherwise available to it under United States law that is inconsistent with this provision.

(j)(1) If an accredited or certified reinsurer ceases to meet the requirements for accreditation or certification, the Commissioner may suspend or revoke the reinsurer’s accreditation or certification.

(2) The Commissioner shall give the reinsurer notice and opportunity for a hearing. The suspension or revocation shall not take effect until after the Commissioner’s order on a hearing, unless:

(A) The reinsurer waives its right to a hearing;

(B) The Commissioner’s order is based on regulatory action by the reinsurer’s domiciliary jurisdiction or the voluntary surrender or termination of the reinsurer’s eligibility to transact insurance or reinsurance business in its domiciliary jurisdiction or in the primary certifying state of the reinsurer under subsection (f)(7) of this section; or

(C) The Commissioner finds that an emergency requires immediate action and a court of competent jurisdiction has not stayed the Commissioner’s action.

(3)(A) While a reinsurer’s accreditation or certification is suspended, no reinsurance contract issued or renewed after the effective date of the suspension qualifies for credit except to the extent that the reinsurer’s obligations under the contract are secured in accordance with § 31-502.

(B) If a reinsurer’s accreditation or certification is revoked, no credit for reinsurance may be granted after the effective date of the revocation except to the extent that the reinsurer’s obligations under the contract are secured in accordance with subsection (f)(6) of this section or § 31-502.

(k)(1) A ceding insurer shall take steps to manage its reinsurance recoverables proportionate to its own book of business. A domestic ceding insurer shall notify the Commissioner within 30 days after reinsurance recoverables from any single assuming insurer, or group of affiliated assuming insurers, that exceeds 50% of the domestic ceding insurer’s last reported surplus to policyholders, or after it is determined that reinsurance recoverables from any single assuming insurer, or group of affiliated assuming insurers, is likely to exceed this limit. The notification shall demonstrate that the exposure is safely managed by the domestic ceding insurer.

(2) A ceding insurer shall take steps to diversify its reinsurance program. A domestic ceding insurer shall notify the Commissioner within 30 days after ceding to any single assuming insurer, or group of affiliated assuming insurers, more than 20% of the ceding insurer’s gross written premium in the prior calendar year, or after it has determined that the reinsurance ceded to any single assuming insurer, or group of affiliated assuming insurers, is likely to exceed this limit. The notification shall demonstrate that the exposure is safely managed by the domestic ceding insurer.


(Oct. 15, 1993, D.C. Law 10-36, § 2, 40 DCR 5812; Mar. 21, 1995, D.C. Law 10-233, § 11, 42 DCR 24; Feb. 27, 1996, D.C. Law 11-90, § 6, 42 DCR 7155; Apr. 9, 1997, D.C. Law 11-255, § 42, 44 DCR 1271; May 21, 1997, D.C. Law 11-268, § 10(cc), 44 DCR 1730; Oct. 21, 2000, D.C. Law 13-185, § 3, 47 DCR 7068; Mar. 11, 2015, D.C. Law 20-235, § 3(a), 62 DCR 461.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 35-3301.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 31-502.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 13-185 added subsec. (b-1).

The 2015 amendment by D.C. Law 20-235 rewrote this section.

Cross References

Hospital and medical services corporations, applicability of this section, see § 31-3503.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary amendment of section, see § 7 of the Insurance Omnibus Emergency Amendment Act of 1995 (D.C. Act 11-48, May 15, 1995, 42 DCR 2544) and § 6 of the Insurance Omnibus Congressional Recess Emergency Amendment Act of 1995 (D.C. Act 11-97, July 19, 1995, 42 DCR 3844).

Temporary Legislation

For temporary (225 day) amendment of section, see § 6 of Insurance Omnibus Temporary Amendment Act of 1995 (D.C. Law 11-36, September 8, 1995, law notification 42 DCR 5305).

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 10-36: Section 7 of D.C. Law 10-36 provided that §§ 35-3301 through 35-3303 and Section 5 of this act shall apply to all cession after the effective date of this act under reinsurance agreements which have had an inception, anniversary, or renewal date not less than 6 months after the effective date of this act.

Mayor authorized to issue rules: Section 5 of D.C. Law 10-36 provided that the Mayor shall, pursuant to subchapter I of Chapter 15 of Title 1 [subchapter I of Chapter 5 of Title 2, 2001 Ed.], issue rules to implement the provisions of this chapter.

Delegation of Authority

Delegation of authority pursuant to D.C. Law 10-36, the Law on Credit for Reinsurance Act of 1993, see Mayor’s Order 94-54, March 7, 1994 ( 41 DCR 1433).