For the purposes of this chapter, the term:
(1) “Chancellor” means the chief executive officer of DCPS, as established by § 38-174.
(2) “DCMR” means the District of Columbia Municipal Regulations.
(3) “DCPS” means the District of Columbia Public Schools agency established by § 38-171.
(4) “Parent” means a natural parent, adoptive parent, step-parent, or any person who has legal custody of a student by court order.
(5) “Passing grade” means:
(A) For pre-kindergarten through 5th grade, achieving proficient or advanced grades in a subject or content area; and
(B) For 6th through 12th grade, receiving credit for a course.
(6) “Principal” means a principal at a DCPS school.
(7) “Promoted” describes students in pre-kindergarten through 11th grade who are advanced to the next grade level.
(8) “Promotion” means advancement to the next grade level for students in pre-kindergarten through grade 11.
(9) “Retained” describes students who are required to repeat their current grade level due to their failure to meet promotion criteria.
(10) “Retention” means repetition of a student’s current school grade level due to the student’s failure to meet promotion criteria.
(11) “School year” means the school term beginning in August of one year and ending in the following year. The term “school year” does not include summer school.
(12) “Subject” and “content area” mean a particular course of study, such as mathematics, English language arts, writing, or literature.