Code of the District of Columbia

Chapter 36. Crimes Committed Against Certain Persons.


§ 22–3601. Enhanced penalty for crimes against senior citizen victims.

(a) Any person who commits any offense listed in subsection (b) of this section against an individual who is 65 years of age or older, at the time of the offense, may be punished by a fine of up to 1 1/2 times the maximum fine otherwise authorized for the offense and may be imprisoned for a term of up to 1 1/2 times the maximum term of imprisonment otherwise authorized for the offense, or both.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall apply to the following offenses: Abduction, arson, aggravated assault, assault with a dangerous weapon, assault with intent to kill, commit first degree sexual abuse, or commit second degree sexual abuse, assault with intent to commit any other offense, burglary, carjacking, armed carjacking, extortion or blackmail accompanied by threats of violence, kidnapping, malicious disfigurement, manslaughter, mayhem, murder, robbery, sexual abuse in the first, second, and third degrees, theft, fraud in the first degree, and fraud in the second degree, identity theft, financial exploitation of a vulnerable adult or elderly person, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

(c) It is an affirmative defense that the accused knew or reasonably believed the victim was not 65 years old or older at the time of the offense, or could not have known or determined the age of the victim because of the manner in which the offense was committed. This defense shall be established by a preponderance of the evidence.


(Dec. 1, 1982, D.C. Law 4-164, § 201, 29 DCR 3976; Apr. 24, 2007, D.C. Law 16-306, § 220, 53 DCR 8610; Nov. 23, 2016, D.C. Law 21-166, § 2(c), 63 DCR 10733.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 22-3901.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 16-306 rewrote subsecs. (b) and (c).

Cross References

Attempt to commit robbery, see § 22-2802.

Extortion, see § 22-3251.

Fraud, see § 22-3221.

Robbery, see § 22-2801.

Theft, see § 22-3211.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 220 of Omnibus Public Safety Emergency Amendment Act of 2006 (D.C. Act 16-445, July 19, 2006, 53 DCR 6443).

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 220 of Omnibus Public Safety Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2006 (D.C. Act 16-490, October 18, 2006, 53 DCR 8686).

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 220 of Omnibus Public Safety Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2007 (D.C. Act 17-10, January 16, 2007, 54 DCR 1479).

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 220 of Omnibus Public Safety Second Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2007 (D.C. Act 17-25, April 19, 2007, 54 DCR 4036).


§ 22–3602. Enhanced penalty for committing certain dangerous and violent crimes against a citizen patrol member.

(a) For purposes of this section, the term “citizen patrol” means a group of residents of the District of Columbia organized for the purpose of providing additional security surveillance for certain District of Columbia neighborhoods with the goal of crime prevention. The term shall include, but is not limited to, Orange Hat Patrols, Red Hat Patrols, Blue Hat Patrols, or Neighborhood Watch Associations.

(b) Any person who commits any offense listed in subsection (c) of this section against a member of a citizen patrol (“member”) while that member is participating in a citizen patrol, or because of the member’s participation in a citizen patrol, may be punished with a fine up to 1 1/2 times the maximum fine otherwise authorized for the offense or may be imprisoned for a term of up to 1 1/2 times the maximum term of imprisonment otherwise authorized for this offense, or both.

(c) The provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall apply to the following offenses: taking or attempting to take property from another by force or threat of force, forcible rape, or assault with intent to commit forcible rape, murder, mayhem, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, voluntary manslaughter, extortion or blackmail accompanied by threats of violence, assault with a deadly weapon, simple assault, aggravated assault, or a conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses as defined by an Act of Congress or law of the District of Columbia if the offense is punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year.


(Dec. 1, 1982, D.C. Law 4-164, § 202; as added Aug. 20, 1994, D.C. Law 10-151, § 401, 41 DCR 2608.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 22-3902.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary addition of section, see § 401 of the Omnibus Criminal Justice Reform Emergency Amendment Act of 1994 (D.C. Act 10-255, June 22, 1994, 41 DCR 4286).