Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter V. Commissioner Possession, Receivership, Conservatorship, and Liquidation of Universal Banks.


§ 26–1401.16. Liquidation of universal banks in general.

A universal bank shall not be liquidated except as provided by this chapter or in accordance with the order of a court of competent jurisdiction.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 216, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.17. Commissioner taking possession of universal banks.

(a) Subject to § 26-1401.15 as it relates to the functional regulatory authority of the Commissioner with respect to the liquidation or rehabilitation of an insurance subsidiary or holding company affiliate, the Commissioner may take possession of the business and property of a universal bank if the Commissioner has determined that one or more of the events described in subsection (b) of this section has occurred.

(b) The Commissioner may take possession of the properties or business of a universal bank under subsection (a) of this section if the universal bank:

(1) Has violated a law, rule, regulation, a condition imposed by the Commissioner in connection with the approval of an application, an order or authorized request by the Commissioner, or a term or condition of a written agreement entered into with the Commissioner, and such violation affects the safe and sound condition and operation of the bank or the severity of the violation calls into question the competency of management or the quality of the operation of the bank;

(2) Is conducting its business in an unauthorized or unsafe or unsound manner;

(3) Is in an unsafe and unsound condition to transact its business;

(4) Has an impairment of its capital;

(5) Has suspended payment of its obligations;

(6) Has neglected or refused to comply with the terms of a duly issued order of the Commissioner;

(7) Has refused, upon proper demand, to submit its records and affairs for inspection to an examiner of the Department;

(8) Has refused to be examined upon oath regarding its affairs; or

(9) Has neglected, refused or failed to take or continue proceedings for voluntary liquidation in accordance with any of the provisions of this chapter.

(c) If the Commissioner takes possession of the property or business of a universal bank under this section, the Commissioner shall inform the universal bank of the universal bank’s right to seek review of the Commissioner’s action under subsection (e) of this section.

(d) The Commissioner may maintain possession of the property or business of a universal bank until:

(1) The affairs of the universal bank are finally liquidated;

(2) The universal bank, with the written approval of the Commissioner, voluntarily winds up its affairs; or

(3) The Commissioner authorizes the universal bank to resume business under § 26-1401.18.

(e) Within 10 days after the Commissioner takes possession of the property or business of a universal bank under this section, the universal bank may apply to the Superior Court for an order requiring the Commissioner to show cause why the Commissioner should not be enjoined from continuing his or her possession of the property or business. The Superior Court may, upon good cause shown, direct the Commissioner to surrender possession of some or all of the business or property of the universal bank or direct the Commissioner to take, or refrain from taking, any action.

(f) In addition to the authority granted under this section, the Commissioner may appoint a receiver for the universal bank as provided in § 26-1401.19.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 217, 48 DCR 3244; June 11, 2004, D.C. Law 15-166, § 2(h), 51 DCR 2817.)

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 15-166, in subsec. (a), deleted “of the Department of Insurance and Securities Regulation” following “authority of the Commissioner”.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 2(h) of Consolidation of Financial Services Emergency Amendment Act of 2004 (D.C. Act 15-381, February 27, 2004, 51 DCR 2653).


§ 26–1401.18. Resumption of business by a universal bank.

A universal bank of which the Commissioner takes possession or which is operating under restrictions imposed by the Commissioner may be permitted by the Commissioner to resume business in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Commissioner.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 218, 48 DCR 3244.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 26-1401.17.


§ 26–1401.19. Appointment of a receiver for a universal bank.

(a) The Commissioner may petition the Superior Court to appoint a receiver for a universal bank if there is a reasonable basis to believe the universal bank:

(1) Has violated a law, rule, regulation, a condition imposed by the Commissioner in connection with the approval of an application, an order or authorized request by the Commissioner, or a term or condition of a written agreement entered into with the Commissioner, and such violation affects the safe and sound condition and operation of the bank or the severity of the violation calls into question the competency of management or the quality of the operation of the bank;

(2) Has violated a condition imposed by the Commissioner in connection with the approval of an application, an order or authorized request of the Commissioner, or a written agreement entered into with the Commissioner;

(3) Is conducting its business in an unauthorized, unsafe, or unsound manner;

(4) Is in an unsafe and unsound condition;

(5) Has an impairment of its capital;

(6) Has suspended payment of its obligations;

(7) Has refused, upon proper demand, to submit its records and affairs for inspection to an examiner of the Department;

(8) Has refused to be examined upon oath regarding its affairs; or

(9) Has neglected, refused, or failed to take or continue proceedings for voluntary liquidation in accordance with any of the provisions of this chapter.

(b) If the Commissioner petitions the Superior Court to appoint a receiver for a universal bank, the Commissioner shall request that the Superior Court appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as the receiver if any of the deposits in the universal bank are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(c) The Superior Court may act upon a petition by the Commissioner for the appointment of a receiver immediately and without notice to any person. The Superior Court may appoint a receiver if the Superior Court determines that a condition set forth in subsection (a) of this section exists and that the bank is operating, or may operate, in an unsafe or unsound manner. The Superior Court may also issue an injunction to require a universal bank to correct any condition set forth in subsection (a) of this section, notwithstanding whether the bank is operating, or may operate, in an unsafe or unsound manner. If the Superior Court appoints a receiver and, after the appointment of a receiver, it appears to the Superior Court that reasons for receivership do not, or no longer, exist, the Superior Court shall dissolve the receivership and terminate any pending proceedings.

(d) Unless otherwise provided by law, a receiver, other than a receiver who is an employee of the Department and acting in his or her official capacity, shall post a bond in an amount to be determined by the Superior Court.

(e) The receiver shall, on a regular basis, report to the Commissioner regarding all matters involving the receivership.

(f) If a universal bank has been closed and placed in receivership, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pays, or makes available for payment, the insured deposit liabilities of the closed bank, the rights of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, whether or not the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the receiver of the bank, shall be subrogated to all of the rights of the owners of the deposits against the closed universal bank in the same manner and to the same extent as subrogation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is provided for in section 11(g) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, approved September 21, 1950 (64 Stat. 884; 12 U.S.C. § 1821(g)).


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 219, 48 DCR 3244.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 26-1401.17 and § 26-1401.23.


§ 26–1401.20. Receiver duties and powers.

(a) Subject to Superior Court approval, a receiver shall:

(1) Take possession of the books, records, and assets of the universal bank and collect all debts, dues, and claims belonging to the universal bank;

(2) Sue, defend, compromise, arbitrate, or otherwise settle all claims involving the universal bank;

(3) Sell all real and personal property;

(4) Exercise all fiduciary functions of the universal bank;

(5) Pay all administrative expenses of the receivership, which expenses shall be a first charge upon the assets of the universal bank and shall be fully paid before a final distribution or payment of dividends to creditors or shareholders;

(6) Pay, ratably, all debts of the universal bank; provided, that debts not exceeding $500 may be paid in full, but the holders of such debt shall not be entitled to interest on the debt;

(7) Repay, ratably, any amount paid in by a shareholder by reason of an assessment made upon the stock of the universal bank by the Department in accordance with this chapter;

(8) Pay, ratably, to the shareholders of the universal bank, in proportion to the number of shares held and owned by each, the balance of the net assets of the universal bank after payment or provision for payments as provided in this section;

(9) Have all the powers of the directors, officers, and shareholders of the universal bank as necessary to support an action taken on behalf of the universal bank; and

(10) Hold title to all the bank’s property, contracts, and rights of action.

(b) Subject to Superior Court approval, a receiver may:

(1) Borrow money as necessary or expedient in aiding the liquidation of the universal bank and secure the borrowed money by the pledge, hypothecation, or mortgage of the assets of the bank;

(2) Employ agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, consultants, and other personnel, including, with the prior written approval of the Commissioner, personnel of the Department, that the receiver considers necessary or expedient to assist in the performance of the receiver’s duties; provided, that the expense of employing Department personnel shall be an administrative expense of the liquidation that shall be payable to the Department; or

(3) Exercise any other power and duty authorized by the Superior Court.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 220, 48 DCR 3244; Oct. 19, 2002, D.C. Law 14-213, § 18(g), 49 DCR 8140.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 26-1401.27.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 14-213, in subsec. (a)(7), validated a previously made technical correction.


§ 26–1401.21. Lien on property or assets; voidable transfer.

(a) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the transfer of, or a lien on, the property or assets of the universal bank shall be voidable by the receiver if the transfer or lien was:

(1) Made or created within one year before the date the universal bank is ordered into receivership if the receiving transferee or lien holder was at the time an affiliate, officer, director, employee, or principal shareholder of the universal bank or an affiliate of the universal bank;

(2) Made or created within 90 days before the date the universal bank is ordered into receivership, with the intent of giving to a creditor or depositor, or enabling a creditor or depositor to obtain, a greater percentage of the creditor’s or depositor’s debt than is given or obtained by another creditor or depositor of the same class;

(3) Accepted after the universal bank is ordered into receivership by a creditor or depositor having reasonable cause to believe that a preference, as described in subsection (b) of this section, will occur; or

(4) Voidable by the universal bank and the universal bank may recover the property transferred, or its value, from the person to whom it was transferred or from a person who has received it, unless the transferee or recipient was a bona fide holder for value before the date the Commissioner takes possession of the universal bank or the date the universal bank was ordered into receivership or conservatorship.

(b) A preference in a transfer or grant of an interest in the property or assets of a universal bank shall be deemed to occur when:

(1) There is an intent to hinder, delay, or defraud an entity to which, on or after the date that the transfer or grant of interest was made, the universal bank was or became indebted; or

(2) Less than a reasonably equivalent value is obtained by the universal bank in exchange for the transfer or grant of interest if the universal bank was insolvent when the transfer or grant of interest was made or if the universal bank became insolvent as a result of the transfer or grant of interest.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the receiver shall not void an otherwise voidable transfer under this section if:

(1) The transfer or lien does not exceed $1,000 in value;

(2) The transfer or lien was received in good faith by a person who is not a person described in subsection (a)(1) of this section and who gave value in exchange for the transfer or lien; or

(3) The transfer or lien was intended by the universal bank and the transferee or lien holder to be, and in fact substantially was, a contemporaneous exchange for new value given to the universal bank.

(d) A person acting on behalf of the universal bank who knowingly participated in making or implementing a voidable transfer or lien, and each person receiving property or assets, or the benefit of property or assets, of the universal bank as a result of a voidable transfer or lien, shall be personally liable for the property, assets, or benefit received and shall account to the receiver for the benefit of the universal bank.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 221, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.22. Maintenance and disposal of records by receiver.

(a) With the approval of the Superior Court, a receiver may dispose of records of the universal bank in receivership that are obsolete and unnecessary to the continued administration of the receivership.

(b) The receiver may retain the records of the universal bank and the receivership for a period of time that the receiver considers appropriate or for a period of time as ordered by the Superior Court.

(c) The receiver may devise a method for the effective, efficient, and economical maintenance of the records of the universal bank and of the receiver’s office, including maintaining the records on any medium approved by the Superior Court.

(d) The receiver may use assets of a universal bank to:

(1) Procure services to maintain the records of a liquidated universal bank; or

(2) Pay fees, as established by the Commissioner, to the Commissioner necessary for the Commissioner to procure services to maintain the records of a liquidated universal bank.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 222, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.23. Conservator; appointment; bond and security; qualifications; expenses.

(a) If any of the grounds under § 26-1401.19 authorizing a request for the appointment of a receiver exist or if the Commissioner determines that it is necessary to conserve the assets of a universal bank for the benefit of the depositors, investors, or other creditors of the bank or for the benefit of the general public, the Commissioner may petition the Superior Court to appoint a conservator for a universal bank.

(b) The Department shall be reimbursed out of the assets of the conservatorship, as expenses, for all sums expended by the Department in connection with the conservatorship.

(c) All expenses of a conservatorship shall be paid out of the assets of the universal bank upon the approval of the Commissioner, shall be a first charge upon the assets of the universal bank, and shall be paid in full before a final distribution or payment of dividends to creditors or shareholders of the universal bank.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 223, 48 DCR 3244; Oct. 26, 2001, D.C. Law 14-42, § 15, 48 DCR 7612; Mar. 2, 2007, D.C. Law 16-191, § 49, 53 DCR 6794.)

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 14-42 substituted “, as expenses,” for “, as expenses” in subsec. (b).

D.C. Law 16-191, in subsec. (a), validated a previously made technical correction.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 15 of Technical Amendments Emergency Act of 2001 (D.C. Act 14-108, August 3, 2001, 48 DCR 7622).


§ 26–1401.24. Conservator; rights, powers, and privileges.

(a) Subject to the supervision of the Commissioner, the conservator shall take possession of the books, records, and assets of the bank and shall take any action necessary to conserve the assets of the universal bank pending further disposition of the business of the universal bank as provided by law.

(b) Subject to Superior Court approval and under the supervision of the Commissioner, the conservator shall:

(1) Take possession of the books, records, and assets of the universal bank and collect all debts, dues, and claims belonging to the universal bank;

(2) Sue, defend, compromise, arbitrate, or otherwise settle claims involving the universal bank;

(3) Sell real and personal property if necessary to conserve the assets of the bank;

(4) Exercise all fiduciary functions of the universal bank;

(5) Pay all administrative expenses of the conservatorship, which expenses shall be a first charge upon the assets of the universal bank and shall be fully paid before a final distribution or payment of dividends to creditors or shareholders;

(6) Pay the debts of the universal bank if the conservator determines that payment of the debts is in the best interests of the universal bank;

(7) Have all the powers of the directors, officers, and shareholders of the universal bank as necessary to support an action taken on behalf of the universal bank; and

(8) Hold title to all the bank’s property, contracts, and rights of action.

(c) Subject to Superior Court approval and under the supervision of the Commissioner the conservator may:

(1) Employ agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, consultants, and other personnel, including, with the prior written approval of the Commissioner, personnel of the Department, that the conservator considers necessary or expedient to assist in the performance of the conservator’s duties; provided, that the expense of employing Department personnel shall be an administrative expense of the liquidation that shall be payable to the Department; or

(2) Exercise any other power and duty authorized by the Superior Court.

(d) Unless otherwise provided by law, a conservator, other than a conservator who is an employee of the Department and acting in his or her official capacity, shall post a bond in an amount to be determined by the Superior Court.

(e) The conservator shall, on a regular basis, report to the Commissioner regarding all matters involving the conservatorship.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 224, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.25. Deposits received while universal bank in conservatorship.

(a) While a universal bank is in conservatorship, the Commissioner may require the conservator to set aside and make available for withdrawal by depositors or investors and payment to other creditors, ratably, amounts that the Commissioner determines may be used safely and soundly for such withdrawals and payments.

(b) The Commissioner may permit the conservator to receive deposits.

(c) Deposits received while the universal bank is in conservatorship shall not be subject to any limitation on payment or withdrawal. The deposits, and any new assets acquired on account of the deposits, shall be segregated and held for the new deposits and shall not be used to liquidate any indebtedness of the universal bank:

(1) Existing at the time that a conservator was appointed for the universal bank; or

(2) Incurred after a conservator was appointed and was incurred for the purpose of liquidating any indebtedness of the universal bank existing at the time that the conservator was appointed.

(d) Deposits received while the universal bank is in conservatorship shall be kept in cash, invested in direct obligations of the United States, or deposited in depository institutions designated by the Commissioner.

(e) The requirements of subsections (c) and (d) of this section shall remain in effect for 15 days following the date that the conservator returns control of the universal bank to its board of directors, or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may designate.

(f) Before returning control of the universal bank to its board of directors, the conservator shall publish a notice in a paper of general circulation in the District of Columbia in a form approved by the Commissioner, stating the date on which the affairs of the universal bank will be returned to its board of directors and that the provisions of subsection (c) or (d) of this section will not be in effect after 15 days from that date. The conservator shall send a copy of the notice described in the previous sentence to each person who deposited money in the universal bank after the appointment of the conservator and before the time when control of the universal bank is returned to the board of directors.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 225, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.26. Authority of conservator to borrow money; purpose.

(a) With the prior approval of the Commissioner, the conservator of a universal bank may borrow money to aid in the operation, reorganization, or liquidation of the bank, including the payment of liquidating dividends.

(b) With the prior approval of the Commissioner, the conservator may secure money borrowed under subsection (a) of this section by the pledge, hypothecation, or mortgage of the assets of the universal bank.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 226, 48 DCR 3244.)


§ 26–1401.27. Termination of conservatorship.

(a) If the Commissioner determines that termination of the conservatorship and resumption of the transaction of the universal bank’s business by the universal bank can be achieved and maintained in a safe and sound manner and is otherwise in the public interest, the Commissioner may petition the Superior Court to terminate a conservatorship and permit the universal bank to resume the transaction of its business, subject to terms, conditions, restrictions, and limitations as the Commissioner determines are appropriate.

(b) If the Superior Court determines that reasons for the conservatorship no longer exist, the Superior Court may dissolve the conservatorship and terminate any pending proceedings.

(c) If the Commissioner determines that it would be in the public interest, the Commissioner may petition the Superior Court for termination of a conservatorship and appointment of a receiver for the universal bank under § 26-1401.20.


(June 9, 2001, D.C. Law 13-308, § 227, 48 DCR 3244.)