Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter II. Merger.


§ 29–202.01. Merger authorized.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, by complying with this subchapter:

(1) One or more domestic entities may merge with one or more domestic or foreign entities into a domestic or foreign surviving entity; and

(2) Two or more foreign entities may merge into a domestic entity.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, by complying with the provisions of this subchapter applicable to foreign entities a foreign entity may be a party to a merger under this subchapter or may be the surviving entity in such merger if the merger is authorized by the law of the foreign entity’s jurisdiction of formation.

(c) This subchapter shall not apply to a transaction under:

(1) Subchapter IX of Chapter 3 of this title;

(2) Subchapter IX of Chapter 4 of this title;

(3) Section 29-512;

(4) Subchapter IX of Chapter 6 of this title;

(5) Subchapter X of Chapter 7 of this title;

(6) Subchapter IX of Chapter 8 of this title;

(7) Subchapter XV of Chapter 10 of this title;

(8) Section 29-1126; or

(9) Subchapter VII of Chapter 12 of this title.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(4), 59 DCR 13171.)

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “formation” for “organization” in (b); and substituted “Subchapter VII” for “Subchapter XII” in (c)(9).

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–202.02. Plan of merger.

(a) A domestic entity may become a party to a merger under this subchapter by approving a plan of merger. The plan shall be in a record and contain:

(1) As to each merging entity, its name, jurisdiction of formation, and type;

(2) If the surviving entity is to be created in the merger, a statement to that effect and its name, jurisdiction of formation, and type;

(3) The manner of converting the interests in each party to the merger into interests, securities, obligations, rights to acquire interests or securities, money, or other property, or any combination of the foregoing;

(4) If the surviving entity exists before the merger, any proposed amendments to its public organic record or to its private organic rules that are, or are proposed to be, in a record;

(5) If the surviving entity is to be created in the merger, its proposed public organic record, if any, and the full text of its private organic rules that are proposed to be in a record;

(6) The other terms and conditions of the merger; and

(7) Any other provision required by the law of a merging entity’s jurisdiction of formation or the organic rules of a merging entity.

(b) A plan of merger may contain any other provision not prohibited by law.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(6), 59 DCR 13171.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-201.02.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “formation” for “organization” in (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(7); substituted “money” for “cash” in (a)(3) and substituted “record” for “document” in (a)(4) and (a)(5).

Editor's Notes

Section 2(b)(4)(B) of D.C. Law 19-210 purported to amend § 29-202.02(c). Because this section does not have a subsection (c), the amendment could not be implemented.

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–202.03. Approval of merger.

(a) A plan of merger shall not be effective unless it has been approved:

(1) By a domestic merging entity:

(A) In accordance with the requirements, if any, in its organic law and organic rules for approval of:

(i) In the case of an entity that is not a business corporation, a merger; or

(ii) In the case of a business corporation, a merger requiring approval by a vote of the interest holders of the business corporation; or

(B) If its organic law or organic rules do not provide for approval of a merger described in subparagraph (A)(ii) of this paragraph, by all of the interest holders of the entity entitled to vote on or consent to any matter; and

(2) In a record, by each interest holder of a domestic merging entity that will have interest holder liability for debts, obligations, and other liabilities that arise after the merger becomes effective, unless, in the case of an entity that is not a business corporation or nonprofit corporation:

(A) The organic rules of the entity provide in a record for the approval of an merger in which some or all of its interest holders become subject to interest holder liability by the vote or consent of less than all of the interest holders; and

(B) The interest holder voted for or consented in a record to that provision of the organic rules or became an interest holder after the adoption of that provision.

(b) A merger under this chapter involving a foreign merging is not effective unless it is approved by the foreign entity in accordance with the law of the foreign entity’s jurisdiction of formation.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(7), 59 DCR 13171.)

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “debts, obligations, and other liabilities” for “liabilities” in (a)(2); and in (b), added “under this chapter” following “merger”, and substituted “is not effective” for “shall not be effective”, and “formation” for “organization.”

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–202.04. Amendment or abandonment of plan of merger.

(a) A plan of merger may be amended only with the consent of each party to the plan, except as otherwise provided in the plan. A domestic merging entity may approve an amendment of a plan of merger:

(1) In the same manner as the plan was approved, if the plan does not provide for the manner in which it may be amended; or

(2) By the governors or interest holders of the entity in the manner provided in the plan, but an interest holder that was entitled to vote on or consent to approval of the merger shall be entitled to vote on or consent to any amendment of the plan that will change:

(A) The amount or kind of interests, securities, obligations, rights to acquire interests or securities, money, or other property, or any combination of the foregoing, to be received by the interest holders of any party to the plan;

(B) The public organic record, if any, or private organic rules of the surviving entity that will be in effect immediately after the merger becomes effective, except for changes that do not require approval of the interest holders of the surviving entity under its organic law or organic rules; or

(C) Any other terms or conditions of the plan, if the change would adversely affect the interest holder in any material respect.

(b) After a plan of merger has been approved and before a statement of merger becomes effective, the plan may be abandoned:

(1) As provided in the plan; or

(2) Unless prohibited by the plan, by a domestic merging entity in the same manner as the plan was approved.

(c) If a plan of merger is abandoned after a statement of merger has been delivered to the Mayor for filing and before the statement of merger becomes effective, a statement of abandonment, signed by a party to the plan, shall be delivered to the Mayor for filing before the time the statement of merger becomes effective. The statement of abandonment shall be effective upon filing by the Mayor, and the merger shall be abandoned and shall not become effective. The statement of abandonment shall contain:

(1) The name of each party to the plan of merger;

(2) The date on which the statement of merger was filed; and

(3) A statement that the merger has been abandoned in accordance with this section.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(8), 59 DCR 13171.)

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 rewrote the section.

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–202.05. Statement of merger; effective date.

(a) A statement of merger shall be signed on behalf of each merging entity and delivered to the Mayor for filing.

(b) A statement of merger shall contain:

(1) The name, jurisdiction of formation, and type of entity of each merging entity that is not the surviving entity;

(2) The name, jurisdiction of formation, and type of entity of the surviving entity;

(3) If the statement of merger is not to be effective upon filing, the later date and time on which it will become effective, which may not be more than 90 days after the date of filing;

(4) A statement that the merger was approved by each domestic merging entity, if any, in accordance with this subchapter and by each foreign merging entity, if any, in accordance with the law of its jurisdiction of formation;

(5) If the surviving entity exists before the merger and is a domestic filing entity, any amendment to its public organic record approved as part of the plan of merger;

(6) If the surviving entity is created by the merger and is a domestic filing entity, its public organic document as an attachment;

(7) If the surviving entity is created by the merger and is a domestic limited liability partnership, its statement of qualification as an attachment; and

(8) If the surviving entity is a foreign entity that is not a registered foreign entity, a mailing address to which process may be served pursuant to § 29-202.06(e).

(c) In addition to the requirements of subsection (b) of this section, a statement of merger may contain any other provision not prohibited by law.

(d) If the surviving entity is a domestic entity, its public organic record, if any, shall satisfy the requirements of the law of the District, except that it does not need to be signed and may omit any provision that is not required to be included in a restatement of the public organic record.

(e) A plan of merger that is signed on behalf of all of the merging entities and meets all of the requirements of subsection (b) of this section may be delivered to the Mayor for filing instead of a statement of merger and, upon filing by the Mayor, shall have the same effect. If a plan of merger is filed as provided in this subsection, references in this chapter to a statement of merger refer to the plan of merger filed under this subsection.

(f) A statement of merger shall be effective upon the date and time of filing or the later date and time specified in the statement of merger.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(9), 59 DCR 13171.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-201.02.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “delivered to the Mayor for filing” for “filed with the Mayor” in (a) and (e); substituted “formation” for “organization” and “and type of entity” for “type” throughout (b); substituted “record” for “document” in (b)(5) and throughout (d); substituted “registered” for “qualified” in (b)(8); and added “by the Mayor” after “filing” in (e).

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–202.06. Effect of merger.

(a) When a merger under this chapter becomes effective:

(1) The surviving entity shall continue or come into existence;

(2) Each merging entity that is not the surviving entity shall cease to exist;

(3) All property of each merging entity shall vest in the surviving entity without transfer, reversion, or impairment;

(4) All debts, obligations, and other liabilities of each merging entity shall be the debts, obligations, and other liabilities of the surviving entity;

(5) Except as otherwise provided in law other than this chapter or the plan of merger, all of the rights, privileges, immunities, powers, and purposes of each merging entity shall vest in the surviving entity;

(6) If the surviving entity exists before the merger:

(A) All of its property shall continue to be vested in it without transfer, reversion or impairment;

(B) It shall remain subject to all of its debts, obligations, and other liabilities; and

(C) All of its rights, privileges, immunities, powers, and purposes shall continue to be vested in it;

(7) The name of the surviving entity may be substituted for the name of any merging entity that is a party to any pending action or proceeding;

(8) If the surviving entity exists before the merger:

(A) Its public organic record, if any, shall be amended as provided in the statement of merger and is effective; and

(B) Its private organic rules that are to be in a record, if any, shall be amended to the extent provided in the plan of merger and are binding on and enforceable by:

(i) Its interest holders; and

(ii) In the case of a surviving entity that is not a business corporation or a nonprofit corporation, any other person that is a party to an agreement that is part of the surviving entity’s private organic rules;

(9) If the surviving entity is created by the merger:

(A) Its public record document, if any, shall be effective and shall be binding on its interest holders; and

(B) Its private organic rules shall be effective and shall be binding on and enforceable by:

(i) Its interest holders; and

(ii) In the case of a surviving entity that is not a business corporation or a nonprofit corporation, any other person that was a party to an agreement that was part of the organic rules of a merging entity if that person has agreed to be a party to an agreement that is part of the surviving entity’s private organic rules; and

(10) The interests in each merging entity that are to be converted in the merger shall be converted, and the interest holders of those interests shall be entitled only to the rights provided to them under the plan of merger and to any appraisal rights they have under § 29-201.09 and the merging entity’s organic law.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in the organic law or organic rules of a merging entity, a merger under this chapter does not give rise to any rights that an interest holder, governor, or third party would otherwise have upon a dissolution, liquidation, or winding-up of the merging entity.

(c) When a merger under this chapter becomes effective, a person that did not have interest holder liability with respect to any of the merging entities and that becomes subject to interest holder liability with respect to a domestic entity as a result of a merger has interest holder liability only to the extent provided by the organic law of the entity and only for those debts, obligations, and other liabilities that arise after the merger becomes effective.

(d) When a merger becomes effective, the interest holder liability of a person that ceases to hold an interest in a domestic merging entity with respect to which the person had interest holder liability shall be as follows:

(1) The merger shall not discharge any interest holder liability under the organic law of the domestic merging entity to the extent the interest holder liability arose before the merger became effective;

(2) The person shall have [sic] not have interest holder liability under the organic law of the domestic merging entity for any liability that arises after the merger becomes effective;

(3) The organic law of the domestic merging entity shall continue to apply to the release, collection, or discharge of any interest holder liability preserved under paragraph (1) of this subsection as if the merger had not occurred and the surviving entity were the domestic merging entity; and

(4) The person shall have whatever rights of contribution from any other person as are provided by law other than this title or the organic rules of the domestic merging entity with respect to any interest holder liability preserved under paragraph (1) of this subsection as if the merger had not occurred.

(e) When a merger under this chapter becomes effective, a foreign entity that is the surviving entity may be served with process in the District for the collection and enforcement of any liabilities of a domestic merging entity in the manner provided in § 29-104.12.

(f) When a merger under this chapter becomes effective, the registration to do business in the District of any foreign merging entity that is not the surviving entity is canceled.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(b)(10), 59 DCR 13171.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-202.05 and § 29-406.58.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 rewrote the section.

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.