Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter II. Incorporation.


§ 29–302.01. Incorporators.

One or more persons may act as the incorporator or incorporators of a corporation by delivering articles of incorporation to the Mayor for filing.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–302.02. Articles of incorporation.

(a) The articles of incorporation shall set forth:

(1) A corporate name for the corporation that satisfies §§ 29-103.01 and 29-103.02(a);

(2) The number of shares the corporation is authorized to issue;

(3) The information required by § 29-104.04; and

(4) The name and address of each incorporator.

(b) The articles of incorporation may set forth:

(1) The names and addresses of the individuals who are to serve as the initial directors;

(2) Provisions not inconsistent with law regarding:

(A) The purpose or purposes for which the corporation is organized;

(B) Managing the business and regulating the affairs of the corporation;

(C) Defining, limiting, and regulating the powers of the corporation, its board of directors, and shareholders;

(D) A par value for authorized shares or classes of shares;

(E) The imposition of personal liability on shareholders for the debts of the corporation to a specified extent and upon specified conditions;

(3) Any provision that under this chapter is required or permitted to be set forth in the bylaws;

(4) A provision eliminating or limiting the liability of a director to the corporation or its shareholders for money damages for any action taken, or any failure to take any action, as a director, except liability for:

(A) The amount of a financial benefit received by a director to which the director is not entitled;

(B) An intentional infliction of harm on the corporation or the shareholders;

(C) A violation of § 29-306.32; or

(D) An intentional violation of criminal law; and

(5) A provision permitting or making obligatory indemnification of a director for liability, as defined in § 29-306.50, to any person for any action taken, or any failure to take any action, as a director, except liability for:

(A) Receipt of a financial benefit to which the director is not entitled;

(B) An intentional infliction of harm on the corporation or its shareholders;

(C) A violation of § 29-306.32; or

(D) An intentional violation of criminal law.

(c) The articles of incorporation need not set forth any of the corporate powers enumerated in this chapter.

(d) Provisions of the articles of incorporation may be made dependent upon facts objectively ascertainable outside the articles of incorporation in accordance with § 29-301.04.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-101.06, § 29-306.31, § 29-306.51, § 29-306.53, § 29-307.03, and § 29-1303.02.


§ 29–302.03. Incorporation.

(a) Unless a delayed effective date is specified, the corporate existence shall begin when the articles of incorporation are filed.

(b) The Mayor’s filing of the articles of incorporation shall be conclusive proof that the incorporators satisfied all conditions precedent to incorporation, except in a proceeding by the District to cancel or revoke the incorporation or involuntarily dissolve the corporation.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–302.04. Liability for preincorporation transactions.

All persons purporting to act as or on behalf of a corporation, knowing there was no incorporation under this chapter, shall be jointly and severally liable for all liabilities created while so acting.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–302.05. Organization of corporation.

(a) After incorporation:

(1) If initial directors are named in the articles of incorporation, the initial directors shall hold an organizational meeting, at the call of a majority of the directors, to complete the organization of the corporation by appointing officers, adopting bylaws, and carrying on any other business brought before the meeting;

(2) If initial directors are not named in the articles, the incorporator or incorporators shall hold an organizational meeting at the call of a majority of the incorporators to elect:

(A) Directors and complete the organization of the corporation; or

(B) A board of directors who shall complete the organization of the corporation.

(b) Action required or permitted by this chapter to be taken by incorporators at an organizational meeting may be taken without a meeting if the action taken is evidenced by one or more written consents describing the action taken and signed by each incorporator.

(c) An organizational meeting may be held in or outside of the District.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–302.06. Bylaws.

(a) The incorporators or board of directors of a corporation shall adopt initial bylaws for the corporation.

(b) The bylaws of a corporation may contain any provision for managing the business and regulating the affairs of the corporation that is not inconsistent with law or the articles of incorporation.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–302.07. Emergency bylaws.

(a) Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, the board of directors of a corporation may adopt bylaws to be effective only in an emergency defined in subsection (d) of this section. The emergency bylaws, which shall be subject to amendment or repeal by the shareholders, may make all provisions necessary for managing the corporation during the emergency, including:

(1) Procedures for calling a meeting of the board of directors;

(2) Quorum requirements for the meeting; and

(3) Designation of additional or substitute directors.

(b) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency. The emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.

(c) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws:

(1) Binds the corporation; and

(2) Shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

(d) An emergency exists for the purposes of this section if a quorum of the corporation’s directors cannot readily be assembled because of some catastrophic event.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)