Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter IX. Merger and Share Exchanges.


§ 29–309.01. Definitions.

For the purposes of this subchapter, the term:

(1) “Acquired corporation” means the domestic or foreign corporation whose shares are acquired in a share exchange.

(2) “Acquiring corporation” means the domestic or foreign corporation that acquires shares in a share exchange.

(3) “Merger” means a business combination pursuant to § 29-309.02.

(4) “Party to a merger” or “party to a share exchange” means any domestic or foreign corporation that will:

(A) Merge under a plan of merger;

(B) Acquire shares of another corporation or an eligible entity in a share exchange; or

(C) Have all of its shares or all of one or more classes or series of its shares acquired in a share exchange.

(5) “Share exchange” means a business combination pursuant to § 29-309.03.

(6) “Survivor” in a merger means the corporation into which one or more other corporations are merged. A survivor of a merger may preexist the merger or be created by the merger.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)


§ 29–309.02. Merger.

(a) One or more domestic business corporations may merge with one or more domestic or foreign business corporations pursuant to a plan of merger, or 2 or more foreign business corporations or domestic may merge into a new domestic business corporation to be created in the merger, in the manner provided in this subchapter.

(b) A foreign business may be a party to a merger with a domestic business corporation, or may be the survivor in such a merger, if the merger is permitted by the jurisdiction of the foreign business corporation is incorporated.

(c) If the organic law of a domestic eligible entity does not provide procedures for the approval of a merger, a plan of merger may be adopted and approved, the merger effectuated, and appraisal rights exercised in accordance with the procedures in this subchapter and subchapter XI of this chapter. For the purposes of applying this subchapter and subchapter XI of this chapter:

(1) The eligible entity, its members or interest holders, eligible interests and organic documents taken together shall be deemed to be a domestic business corporation, shareholders, shares and articles of incorporation, respectively and vice versa as the context may require; and

(2) If the activities and affairs of the eligible entity are managed by a group of persons that is not identical to the members or interest holders, that group shall be deemed to be the board of directors.

(d) The plan of merger shall include:

(1) The name of each domestic or foreign business corporation that will merge and the name of the domestic or foreign business corporation that will be the survivor of the merger;

(2) The terms and conditions of the merger;

(3) The manner and basis of converting the shares of each merging domestic or foreign business corporation into shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities or eligible interests, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing;

(4) The articles of incorporation of any domestic or foreign business corporation to be created by the merger, or if a new domestic or foreign business corporation is not to be created by the merger, any amendments to the survivor’s articles of incorporation; and

(5) Any other provisions required by the laws under which any party to the merger is incorporated, or by the articles of incorporation of any such party.

(e) Terms of a plan of merger may be made dependent on facts objectively ascertainable outside the plan in accordance with § 29-301.04.

(f) The plan of merger may also include a provision that the plan may be amended by the directors or shareholders of a domestic business corporation; provided, that the shareholders that were entitled to vote on the plan shall be entitled to vote on any amendment of the plan that will change:

(1) The amount or kind of shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities or eligible interests, cash, or other property to be received under the plan by the shareholders of any party to the merger;

(2) The articles of incorporation of any corporation that will survive or be created as a result of the merger, except for changes permitted by § 29-308.05; or

(3) Any of the other terms or conditions of the plan if the change would adversely affect such shareholders in any material respect.

(g) A merger in which a business corporation and another form of entity are parties shall be governed by Chapter 2 of this title.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(c)(23), 59 DCR 13171.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-309.01.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “activities” for “business” in (c)(2).

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–309.03. Share exchange.

(a) Through a share exchange:

(1) A domestic business corporation may acquire all of the shares of one or more classes or series of shares of another domestic or foreign business corporation in exchange for shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares or other securities, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing, pursuant to a plan of share exchange; or

(2) All of the shares of one or more classes or series of shares of a domestic business corporation may be acquired by another domestic or foreign business corporation in exchange for shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares or other securities, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing, pursuant to a plan of share exchange.

(b) A foreign business corporation may be a party to a share exchange only if the share exchange is permitted by the laws under which the corporation is incorporated.

(c) The plan of share exchange shall include:

(1) The name of the acquired corporation and the name of the acquiring corporation;

(2) The terms and conditions of the share exchange;

(3) The manner and basis of exchanging shares of the acquired corporation into shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities, or eligible interests, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing; and

(4) Any other provisions required by the laws under which any party to the share exchange is incorporated or by the articles of incorporation of any party.

(d) Terms of a plan of share exchange may be made dependent on facts objectively ascertainable outside the plan in accordance with § 29-301.04.

(e) The plan of share exchange may also include a provision that the plan may be amended by the directors or shareholders of a domestic acquired corporation; provided, that the shareholders that were entitled to vote on the plan shall be entitled to vote on any amendment of the plan that will change:

(1) The amount or kind of shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities or eligible interests, cash, or other property to be issued by the corporation or to be received under the plan by the shareholders of the acquired corporation; or

(2) Any of the other terms or conditions of the plan if the change would adversely affect such shareholders in any material respect.

(f) This section shall not limit the power of a domestic corporation to acquire shares of another corporation in a transaction other than a share exchange.

(g) A share exchange or interest exchange in which a business corporation and another form of entity are parties shall be governed by Chapter 2 of this title.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-309.01.


§ 29–309.04. Action on a plan of merger or share exchange.

In the case of a domestic corporation that is a party to a merger or share exchange:

(1) The plan of merger or share exchange shall be adopted by the board of directors.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (7) of this section and in § 29-309.05, after adopting the plan of merger or share exchange, the board of directors shall submit the plan to the shareholders for their approval. The board of directors shall also transmit to the shareholders a recommendation that the shareholders approve the plan, unless the board of directors makes a determination that because of conflicts of interest or other special circumstances, it should not make such a recommendation, in which case the board of directors shall transmit to the shareholders the basis for that determination.

(3) The board of directors may condition its submission of the plan of merger or share exchange to the shareholders on any basis.

(4) If the plan of merger or share exchange is required to be approved by the shareholders, and if the approval is to be given at a meeting, the corporation shall notify each shareholder, whether or not entitled to vote, of the meeting of shareholders at which the plan is to be submitted for approval. The notice shall state that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the meeting is to consider the plan and shall contain or be accompanied by a copy or summary of the plan. The notice shall also include or be accompanied by a copy or summary of the articles of incorporation of the survivor.

(5) Unless the articles of incorporation, or the board of directors acting pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection, requires a greater vote or a greater number of votes to be present, approval of the plan of merger or share exchange shall require the approval of the shareholders at a meeting at which a quorum consisting of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the plan exists, and, if any class or series of shares is entitled to vote as a separate group on the plan of merger or share exchange, the approval of each such separate voting group at a meeting at which a quorum of the voting group consisting of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the merger or share exchange by that voting group is present.

(6) Separate voting by voting groups shall be required:

(A) On a plan of merger, by each class or series of shares that:

(i) Are to be converted under the plan of merger into other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities or eligible interests, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing; or

(ii) Would be entitled to vote as a separate group on a provision in the plan that, if contained in a proposed amendment to articles of incorporation, would require action by separate voting groups under § 29-308.04;

(B) On a plan of share exchange, by each class or series of shares included in the exchange, with each class or series constituting a separate voting group; and

(C) On a plan of merger or share exchange, if the voting group is entitled under the articles of incorporation to vote as a voting group to approve a plan of merger or share exchange.

(7) Unless the articles of incorporation otherwise provide, approval by the corporation’s shareholders of a plan of merger or share exchange shall not be required if:

(A) The corporation will survive the merger or is the acquiring corporation in a share exchange;

(B) Except for amendments permitted by § 29-308.05, its articles of incorporation will not be changed;

(C) Each shareholder of the corporation whose shares were outstanding immediately before the effective date of the merger or share exchange will hold the same number of shares, with identical preferences, limitations, and relative rights, immediately after the effective date of the merger or share exchange; and

(D) The issuance in the merger or share exchange of shares or other securities convertible into or rights exercisable for shares does not require a vote under § 29-304.21(f).

(8) If as a result of a merger or share exchange one or more shareholders of a domestic business corporation would become subject to owner liability for the debts, obligations, or liabilities of any other person or entity, approval of the plan of merger or share exchange shall require the execution, by each such shareholder, of a separate written consent to become subject to such owner liability.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-311.02.


§ 29–309.05. Merger between parent and subsidiary or between subsidiaries.

(a) A domestic parent corporation that owns shares of a domestic or foreign subsidiary corporation that carry at least 90% of the voting power of each class and series of the outstanding shares of the subsidiary that have voting power may merge the subsidiary into itself or into another such subsidiary, or merge itself into the subsidiary, without the approval of the board of directors or shareholders of the subsidiary, unless the articles of incorporation of any of the corporations otherwise provide, and unless, in the case of a foreign subsidiary, approval by the subsidiary’s board of directors or shareholders is required by the laws under which the subsidiary is organized.

(b) If, under subsection (a) of this section, approval of a merger by the subsidiary’s shareholders is not required, the parent corporation shall, within 10 days after the effective date of the merger, notify each of the subsidiary’s shareholders that the merger has become effective.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, a merger between a parent and a subsidiary shall be governed by the provisions of this subchapter applicable to mergers generally.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-309.04, § 29-311.01, § 29-311.02, § 29-311.10, and § 29-311.12.


§ 29–309.06. Articles of merger or share exchange.

(a) After a plan of merger or a plan of share exchange involving a domestic acquired corporation has been adopted and approved as required by this chapter, articles of merger or share exchange shall be signed on behalf of each party to the merger or the acquired corporation in the share exchange by any officer or other duly authorized representative. The articles shall set forth:

(1) The names of the parties to the merger or share exchange;

(2) If the articles of incorporation of the survivor of a merger are amended, or if a new corporation is created as a result of a merger, the amendments to the survivor’s articles of incorporation or the articles of incorporation of the new corporation;

(3) If the plan of merger or share exchange required approval by the shareholders of a domestic corporation that was a party to the merger or share exchange, a statement that the plan was duly approved by the shareholders and, if voting by any separate voting group was required, by each such separate voting group, in the manner required by this chapter and the articles of incorporation;

(4) If the plan of merger or share exchange did not require approval by the shareholders of a domestic corporation that was a party to the merger or share exchange, a statement to that effect; and

(5) As to each foreign corporation that was a party to the merger or share exchange, a statement that the participation of the foreign corporation was duly authorized as required by the laws of the foreign jurisdiction.

(b) Articles of merger or share exchange shall be delivered to the Mayor for filing by the survivor of the merger or the acquiring corporation in a share exchange and shall be effective at the effective time provided in § 29-102.03.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(c)(24), 59 DCR 13171.)

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 substituted “signed” for “executed” in (a).

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.


§ 29–309.07. Effect of merger or share exchange.

(a) When a merger becomes effective:

(1) The corporation that is designated in the plan of merger as the survivor shall continue or come into existence, as the case may be;

(2) The separate existence of every corporation that is merged into the survivor shall cease;

(3) All property owned by, and every contract right possessed by, each corporation that merges into the survivor shall be vested in the survivor without reversion or impairment;

(4) All liabilities of each corporation that is merged into the survivor shall be vested in the survivor;

(5) The name of the survivor may, but need not be, substituted in any pending proceeding for the name of any party to the merger whose separate existence ceased in the merger;

(6) The articles of incorporation of the survivor shall be amended to the extent provided in the plan of merger;

(7) The articles of incorporation of a survivor that is created by the merger shall become effective; and

(8) The shares of each corporation that is a party to the merger, and the interests in an eligible entity that is a party to a merger, that are to be converted under the plan of merger into shares, other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares, other securities, or eligible interests, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing, shall be converted, and the former holders of such shares shall be entitled only to the rights provided to them in the plan of merger or to any rights they may have under subchapter XI of this chapter.

(b) When a share exchange becomes effective, the shares of the acquired corporation that are to be exchanged for shares or other securities, eligible interests, obligations, rights to acquire shares or other securities, or eligible interests, cash, other property, or any combination of the foregoing, shall be entitled only to the rights provided to them in the plan of share exchange or to any rights they may have under subchapter XI of this chapter.

(c) A person that becomes subject to owner liability for some or all of the debts, obligations, or liabilities of any entity as a result of a merger or share exchange shall have owner liability only to the extent provided in the organic law of the entity and only for those debts, obligations, and liabilities that arise after the effective time of the articles of merger or share exchange.

(d) Upon a merger becoming effective, a foreign corporation that is the survivor of the merger shall be deemed to agree that:

(1) Service of process in a proceeding to enforce the rights of shareholders of each domestic corporation that is a party to the merger that exercise appraisal rights may be made in the manner provided in § 29-104.12; and

(2) It will promptly pay the amount, if any, to which such shareholders are entitled under subchapter XI of this chapter.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720.)

Section References

This section is referenced in § 29-306.58.


§ 29–309.08. Abandonment of a merger or share exchange.

(a) Unless otherwise provided in a plan of merger or share exchange or in the laws under which a foreign business corporation that is a party to a merger or a share exchange is, after the plan has been adopted and approved as required by this subchapter, and at any time before the merger or share exchange has become effective, it may be abandoned by a domestic business corporation that is a party thereto without action by its shareholders in accordance with any procedures set forth in the plan of merger or share exchange or, if no such procedures are set forth in the plan, in the manner determined by the board of directors, subject to any contractual rights of other parties to the merger or share exchange.

(b) If a merger or share exchange is abandoned under subsection (a) of this section after articles of merger or share exchange have been delivered to the Mayor for filing, but before the merger or share exchange has become effective, a statement that the merger or share exchange has been abandoned in accordance with this section, signed on behalf of a party to the merger or share exchange by an officer or other duly authorized representative, shall be delivered to the Mayor for filing prior to the effective date of the merger or share exchange. Upon filing, the statement shall take effect and the merger or share exchange shall be deemed abandoned and shall not become effective.


(July 2, 2011, D.C. Law 18-378, § 2, 58 DCR 1720; Mar. 5, 2013, D.C. Law 19-210, § 2(c)(25), 59 DCR 13171.)

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-210 in (b), substituted “delivered to the Mayor for filing” for “filed with the Mayor” and substituted “signed” for “executed.”

Editor's Notes

Application of Law 19-210: Section 7 of D.C. Law 19-210 provided that the act shall apply as of January 1, 2012.