Code of the District of Columbia

Subchapter II. Standards and Schedules.


§ 48–902.01. Administration.

(a) The Mayor shall administer this chapter and, with provision for public notice and comment, may add substances to or delete or reschedule all substances enumerated in the schedules in § 48-902.04, § 48-902.06, § 48-902.08, § 48-902.10 or § 48-902.12 pursuant to subchapter I of Chapter 5 of Title 2 and pursuant to the procedures set forth in this chapter. In making a determination regarding a substance, the Mayor shall consider the following:

(1) The actual or relative potential for abuse;

(2) The scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known;

(3) The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the substance;

(4) The history and current pattern of abuse;

(5) The scope, duration, and significance of abuse;

(6) The risk to the public health;

(7) The potential of the substance to produce psychological or physiological dependence; and

(8) Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this subchapter.

(b) After considering the factors enumerated in subsection (a) of this section and after complying with subchapter I of Chapter 5 of Title 2, the Mayor shall make findings with respect to the factors and issue a rule either controlling the substance if the Mayor finds that the substance has a potential for abuse or deleting the substance if the Mayor finds that the substance does not have a potential for abuse.

(c) If the Mayor designates a substance as an immediate precursor, substances which are precursors of the controlled precursor shall not be subject to control solely because they are precursors of the controlled precursor.

(d) If any substance is designated, rescheduled, or deleted as a controlled substance under federal law, the Mayor may similarly designate, reschedule, or delete the controlled substance under this chapter, or may otherwise designate, reschedule or delete as a controlled substance pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(e) Authority to control under this section does not extend to tobacco or to distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages, as those terms are defined or used in § 25-103.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 201, 28 DCR 3081; Aug. 1, 1985, D.C. Law 6-15, § 5, 32 DCR 3570; July 24, 1998, D.C. Law 12-136, § 2(a), 45 DCR 2942; June 19, 2013, D.C. Law 19-320, § 301(a), 60 DCR 3390.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-511.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 22-2603.01, § 48-901.02, § 48-902.04, § 48-902.06, § 48-902.08, § 48-902.10, and § 48-902.12.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-320, in (d), substituted “the Mayor may similarly designate, reschedule, or delete the controlled substance” for “the Mayor may similarly propose to control or delete the substance” and added “or may otherwise designate, reschedule or delete as a controlled substance”.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 301(a) of the Omnibus Public Safety and Justice Amendment Act of 2012 (D.C. Act 19-599, January 14, 2013, 60 DCR 1017).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of (d), see § 301(a) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendments Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2013 (D.C. Act 20-44, April 1, 2013, 60 DCR 5381, 20 DCSTAT 1281).

References in Text

Section 25-103, referred to in subsection (e) of this section, is part of Title 25, D.C. Official Code, which title was amended and enacted by D.C. Law 13-298, effective May 3, 2001. For disposition of the subject matter of former Title 25, see the Disposition Table preceding § 25-101.

Editor's Notes

Pursuant to subsection (b), sufentanil was added to the list of enumerated controlled substances in Schedule II, appearing in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of § 48-902.06, by an order published upon adoption of the rule in 32 DCR 1097.

Pursuant to subsection (b), buprenorphine was rescheduled from Schedule II to Schedule V of enumerated controlled substances appearing in § 48-902.12(3), by an order published upon adoption of the rule in 33 DCR 6908.

Pursuant to subsection (b), loperamide was deleted from Schedule V appearing in § 48-902.12(3) by an order published upon adoption of the rule in 34 DCR 4370.

Delegation of Authority

Delegation of Authority to implement D.C. Law 4-29, the “District of Columbia Uniformed Controlled Substances Act of 1981”, see Mayor’s Order 98-49, April 15, 1998 ( 45 DCR 2694).


§ 48–902.02. Nomenclature.

The controlled substances listed or to be listed in the schedules in §§ 48-902.04, 48-902.06, 48-902.08, 48-902.10 and 48-902.12 are included by whatever official, common, usual, chemical, or trade name designated.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 202, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-512.


§ 48–902.03. Schedule I tests.

The Mayor shall place a substance in Schedule I if the Mayor finds that the substance:

(1) Has high potential for abuse; and

(2) Has no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or in the District of Columbia or lacks accepted safety for use in treatment under medical supervision.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 203, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-513.


§ 48–902.04. Schedule I enumerated.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule I, unless and until removed therefrom pursuant to § 48-902.01:

(1) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of these isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Acetylmethadol;

(B) Allylprodine;

(C) Alphacetylmethadol (except levo-alphacetylmethadol, also known as levo-alphaacetylmethadol, levomethadyl, accetate, or LAAM);

(D) Alphameprodine;

(E) Alphamethadol;

(F) Benzethidine;

(G) Betacetylmethadol;

(H) Betameprodine;

(I) Betamethadol;

(J) Betaprodine;

(K) Clonitazene;

(L) Dextromoramide;

(M) Diampromide;

(N) Diethylthiambutene;

(O) Difenoxin;

(P) Dimenoxadol;

(Q) Dimepheptanol;

(R) Dimethylthiambutene;

(S) Dioxaphetylbutyrate;

(T) Dipipanone;

(U) Ethylmethylthiambutene;

(V) Etonitazene;

(W) Etoxeridine;

(X) Furethidine;

(Y) Hydroxypethidine;

(Z) Ketobemidone;

(AA) Levomoramide;

(BB) Levophenacylmorphan;

(CC) Morpheridine;

(DD) Noracymethadol;

(EE) Norlevorphanol;

(FF) Normethadone;

(GG) Norpipanone;

(HH) Phenadoxone;

(II) Phenampromide;

(JJ) Phenomorphan;

(KK) Phenoperidine;

(LL) Piritramide;

(MM) Proheptazine;

(NN) Properidine;

(OO) Propiram;

(PP) Racemoramide;

(QQ) Thiophene;

(RR) Trimeperidine;

(SS) Acetyl-Alpha-Methylfentanyl;

(TT) Alphe-methylfentanyl;

(UU) Alpha-Methylthiofentanyl;

(VV) Beta-hydroxyfentanyl;

(WW) Beta-hydroxy-3-Methylfentanyl;

(XX) 3-Methylfentanyl;

(YY) 3-Methylthiofentanyl;

(ZZ) MPPP;

(AAA) Para-flurofentanyl;

(BBB) PEPAP;

(CCC) Thiofentanyl; and

(DDD) Tilidine;

(2) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opium derivatives, its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Acetorphine;

(B) Acetyldihydrocodeine;

(C) Benzylmorphine;

(D) Codeine methylbromide;

(E) Codeine-N-Oxide;

(F) Cyprenorphine;

(G) Desomorphine;

(H) Dihydromorphine;

(I) Drotepanol;

(J) Etorphine (except hydrochloride salt);

(K) Diacetylated morphine (heroin);

(L) Hydromorphinol;

(M) Methyldesorphine;

(N) Methyldihydromorphine;

(O) Morphine methylbromide;

(P) Morphine methylsulfonate;

(Q) Morphine-N-Oxide;

(R) Myrophine;

(S) Nicocodeine;

(T) Nicomorphine;

(U) Normorphine;

(V) Pholcodine; and

(W) Thebacon;

(3) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, its salts, isomers and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation :

(A) 4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

(B) 2, 5 dimethoxyamphetamine;

(C) 4-methoxyamphetamine;

(D) 5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy amphetamine;

(E) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

(F) 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine [MDA];

(G) 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy amphetamine;

(G-i) 25I-NBOMe (also known as 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine);

(G-ii) 25B-NBOMe (also known as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine)

(G-iii) 25C-NBOMe (also known as 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine);

(G-iv) 5-APB (also known as α-methyl-5-benzofuranethanamine);

(G-v) 5-APDB (also known as 2,3-dihydro-α-methyl-5-benzofuranethanamine);

(G-vi) 6-APB (also known as α-methyl-6-benzofuranethanamine);

(G-vii) 6-APDB (also known as 2,3-dihydro-α-methyl-6-benzofuranethanamine);

(G-viii) 3-methoxy-PCE (also known as N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanamine);

(G-ix) 3-methoxy-PCP (also known as 1-[1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]-piperidine);

(G-x) 4-methoxy-PCP (also known as 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine);

(G-xi) 5-methoxy-DALT, also known as:

(i) 5-MeO-DALT; or

(ii) 5-methoxy-N,N-di-2-propen-1-yl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine;

(G-xii) 4-acetoxy DMT, also known as:

(i) 4-AcO-DMT; or

(ii) 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol-4-acetate;

(H) Bufotenine;

(I) Diethyltryptamine;

(J) Dimethyltryptamine;

(K) Ethylamide analog of phencyclidine, PCE;

(L) Ibogaine;

(M) Lysergic acid diethylamide;

(M-i) Methoxetamine (also known as 2-(ethylamino)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanone);

(N) Mescaline;

(O) Peyote;

(P) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(Q) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(R) Psilocybin;

(S) Psilocyn;

(T) Pyrrolidine analog of phencyclidine, PCPY;

(U) Thiophene analog of phencyclidine;

(V) Repealed;

(W) Parahexyl;

(X) 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine;

(Y) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA];

(Z) Alpha-methyltryptamine (other name: AMT);

(AA) 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (other name: 5- MeO-DIPT);

(BB) 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine (other name: 2C-T-7);

(CC) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-E);

(DD) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-D);

(EE) 2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-C);

(FF) 2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-I);

(GG) 2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2);

(HH) 2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C- T-4);

(II) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-H);

(JJ) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine (2C-N);

(KK) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine (2C-P); and

(LL) Cathinone;

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, or mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Mecloqualone;

(B) Methaqualone; and

(C) Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (some other names include GHB; gamma-hydroxybutyrate; 4-hydroxybutyrate; 4-hydroxybutanoic acid; sodium oxybate; sodium oxybutyrate);

(5) As used in this paragraph, the term "synthetic cathinones" includes any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that is not otherwise listed as a controlled substance in this schedule or in Schedules II through V, is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a drug, and is structurally derived from or contains any quantity of the following substances, their salts, isomers, homologues, analogues, and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, homologues, analogues, and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Classified Synthetic Cathinones:

(i) Cathinones. Any compound, other than methylnenedioxy cathinones and pyrrolidine cathinones, containing a 2-amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with a monocyclic ring system, with or without alkyl, alkoxyl, or halo substitutions, and a substitution at the nitrogen atom by an alkyl group, cycloalkyl group, or incorporation into a heterocyclic structure. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) Mephedrone, also known as:

(aa) 2-(methylamino )-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1-propanone;

(bb) 4-MeMC;

(cc) 4-Methylmethcathinone;

(dd) 4-Methylephedrone; or

(ee) 4-MMC;

(II) Dimethylcathinone, also known as:

(aa) 2-(dimethylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanone; or

(bb) N,N-Dimethylcathinone;

(III) Ethcathinone, also known as:

(aa) 2-(ethylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanone;

(bb) Ethylcathinone;

(cc) N-Ethylcathinone; or

(dd) 2-Ethylaminobuphedro;

(IV) Buphedrone, also known as:

(aa) 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylbutan-l-one; or

(bb) MABP;

(V) 3,4-DMMC, also known as:

(aa) 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1- propanone; or

(bb) 3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone;

(VI) EMC, also known as:

(aa) 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one;

(bb) 4-EMC; or

(cc) 4-Ethylmethcathinone;

(VII) Fluoromethcathinone (also known as 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) propan-1-one);

(VIII) 3-FMC, also known as:

(aa) 3-fluoro-N-methylcathinone); or

(bb) 1-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1- one;

(IX) 4-FMC, also known as:

(aa) 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one;

(bb) 4-fluoro-N-methylcathinone; or

(cc) Flephedrone;

(X) 4-MeBP, also known as:

(aa) 2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1-butanone;

(bb) 4-Methylbuphedrone;

(cc) 4-methyl BP; or

(dd) 4-MeMABP;

(XI) 3-MEC, also known as:

(aa) 2-(ethylamino )-1-(m-tolyl)propan-l-one; or

(bb) 3-Methyl-N-ethylcathinone;

(XII) 4-MEC, also known as:

(aa) 2-(ethylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1-propanone; or

(bb) 4-Methyl-N-ethylcathinone;

(XIII) 3-MMC, also known as:

(aa) 2-(methylamino)-1-(3-methylphenyl)-1-propanone;

(bb) 3-methyl MS; or

(cc) 3-Methylmethcathinone;

(XIV) Methedrone (also known as l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone); and

(XV) Pentedrone (also known as 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one);

(ii) Methylenedioxy Cathinones. Any compound containing a 2- amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with a monocyclic or fused polycyclic ring system and a substitution at any position of the ring system with an alkyl, haloalkyl, halogen, alkylenedioxy, or alkoxy group, whether or not further substituted at any position on the ring system to any extent. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) 3-fluoromethylone;

(II) Methylone, also known as

(aa) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone; or

(bb) 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone);

(III) N-ethyl Pentylone, also known as:

(aa) Ephylone; or

(bb) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)-1-pentanone;

(IV) bk-MDDMA, also known as:

(aa) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(dimethylamino)propan-1-one;

(bb) Dimethylone;

(cc) N,N-dimethyl-3',4'-methylenedioxycathinone;

(dd) N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxycathinone; or

(ee) N,N-Dimethyl MDCATH;

(V) Butylone, also known as 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(methylamino)butan-1-one); and

(VI) Ethylone, also known as:

(aa) 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone; or

(bb) MDEC;

(iii) Pyrrolidine Cathinones. Any compound containing a 2-amino-1-propanone structure with substitution at the 1-position with an alkyl, cyclic, or fused polycyclic ring system and a substitution at the 3-position carbon with an alkyl, haloalkyl, halogen, alkoxy or alkylenedioxy group, and a substitution at the nitrogen atom incorporation into a heterocyclic structure, with or without further halogen substitutions. Examples include:

(I) α-PVP (also known as α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone);

(II) α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, also known as:

(aa) 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-l-propanone; or

(bb) α-PPP;

(III) α-PBP, also known as:

(aa) 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone; or

(bb) α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone;

(IV) MDPBP, also known as:

(aa) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone;

(bb) 3,4-Methylenedioxy-α-Pyrrolidinobutiophenone; or

(cc) 3,4-MDPBP;

(V) MDPPP, also known as:

(aa) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanone; or

(bb) 3,4-Methylenedioxy-α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone;

(VI) MDPV, also known as:

(aa) 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone; or

(bb) 3,4-Methylenedioxy Pyrovalerone;

(VII) 4-MePPP, also known as

(aa) 4'-methyl-α-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone;

(bb) 4'-methyl PPP; or

(cc) 2-(pyrrolidin-l-yl)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-l-one;

(VIII) 4'-methyl PHP, also known as:

(aa) 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone;

(bb) MPHP;

(cc) 4'-methyl-α-PHP; or

(dd) PV4;

(IX) Naphyrone, also known as:

(aa) (RS)-1-naphthalen-2-yl-2-pyrrolidin-l- ylpentan-1-one; or

(bb) Naphpyrovalerone; and

(X) C-PVP, also known as:

(aa) 4-Chloro-α-PVP; or

(bb) 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan- 1-one; or

(iv) Piperazine Stimulants. Any compound containing or structurally derived from a piperazine, or diethylenediamine, structure with or without substitution at one of the nitrogen atoms of the piperazine ring to any extent, including alkyl, cycloalkyl, or fused ring systems, with or without further halogen substitutions. Examples include:

(I) BZP, also known as:

(aa) 1-(phenylmethyl)-piperazine;

(bb) 1-Benzylpiperazine; or

(cc) N-Benzylpiperazine; and

(II) TMFPP, also known as:

(aa) 1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-piperazine;

(bb) 1-(m-Trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine; or

(cc) 3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine.

(B) Unclassified Synthetic Cathinones:

(i) Aminorex (also known as (RS)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-2-amine);

(ii) α-ET, also known as:

(I) α-ethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine;

(II) α-ethyltryptamine; or

(III) 3-Indolybutylamine;

(iii) α-MT, also known as:

(I) α-methyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine; or

(II) α-methyltryptamine;

(iv) EMA, also known as:

(I) N-ethyl-α-methyl-benzeneethanamine; or

(II) N-Ethylamphetamine;

(v) Fenethylline (also known as (RS)-1,3-dimethyl-7-[2-(1-phenylpropan-2-ylamino)ethyl]purine-2,6-dione);

(vi) N-hydroxy MDA, also known as:

(I) MDOH;

(II) N-hydroxy-α-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-ethanamine;

(III) N-Hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; and

(vii) N,N-DMA, also known as:

(I) N,N,α-trimethyl-benzeethanamine;

(II) N,N-Dimethylamphetamine;

(III) Dimetamfetamine; or

(IV) Metrotonin.

(6) Synthetic cannabimimetic agents (also known as "synthetic cannabinoids"), which includes, unless specifically exempted, unless listed in another schedule, or unless approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a drug, any material, mixture, preparation, any compound structurally derived from, or that contains any quantity of the following synthetic substances, its salts, isomers, homologues, analogues and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, homologues, analogues, and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Classified Synthetic Cannabimimetic Agents:

(i) Adamantanoylindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from an adamantanyl-(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone structure with or without substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3- morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the adamantyl ring to any extent. Examples include:

(I) AB-001, also known as:

(aa) (1s,3s)-adamantan-1-yl(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone; or

(bb) JWH 018 adamantyl analog; and

(II) AM-1248, also known as:

(aa) [1-[(1-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1H-indol-3-yl]tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl-methanone; or

(bb) AM1248;

(ii) Benzimidazole Ketone: Any compound containing or structurally derived from (benzimidazole-2-yl) methanone structure with or without substitution at either nitrogen atom of the benzimidazole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group, with substitution at the carbon of the methanone group by an adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, benzyl, quinolinyl, cycloalkyl, 1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-amino-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl or pyrrole group, and whether or not further substituted in the benzimidazole, adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, pyrrole, quinolinyl, or cycloalkyl rings to any extent. Benzimidazole Ketones include:

(I) FUBIMINA, also known as:

(aa) (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone; or

(bb) AM2201 benzimidazole analog; and

(II) JWH-018 benzimidazole analog, also known as:

(aa) naphthalen-1-yl(1-pentyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanone; or

(bb) BIM-018;

(iii) Benzoylindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from a 3-(benzoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring with alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent. Examples include:

(I) AM-630, also known as:

(aa) [6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)-methanone;

(bb) AM630; or

(cc) Iodopravadoline ;

(II) AM-661 (also known as 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidine)methyl-2-methyl-3-(2-iodo)benzoylindole);

(III) AM-679, also known as:

(aa) (2-iodophenyl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone; or

(bb) AM679;

(IV) AM-694, also known as:

(aa) [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2-iodophenyl)-methanone;

(bb) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole; or

(cc) AM694;

(V) AM-1241, also known as:

(aa) (2-iodo-5-nitrophenyl)-(1-(1-methylpiperidin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone; or

(bb) AM1241;

(VI) AM-2233, also known as:

(aa) (2-iodophenyl)[1-[(1-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1H-indol-3-yl]-methanone; or

(bb) AM2233;

(VII) RCS-4, also known as:

(aa) (4-methoxyphenyl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone; or

(bb) SR-19; and

(VIII) WIN 48,098, also known as

(aa) (4-methoxyphenyl)[2-methyl]-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl]-methanone; or

(bb) "Pravadoline";

(iv) Carbazole Ketone: Any compound containing or structurally derived from (9H-carbazole-3-yl) methanone structure with or without substitution at the nitrogen atom of the carbazole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group with substitution at the carbon of the methanone group by an adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, benzyl, quinolinyl, cycloalkyl, 1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-amino-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl or pyrrole group, and whether or not further substituted at the carbazole, adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, pyrrole, quinolinyl, or cycloalkyl rings to any extent. Examples include EG-018 (also known as naphthalen-1-yl(9-pentyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)methanone);

(v) Indazole Amide: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-carboxamide-lH-indazoles, whether or not substituted in the indazole ring to any extent and substituted to any degree on the carboxamide nitrogen and 3-carboxamide-1H-indoles, whether or not substituted in the indole ring to any extent and substituted to any degree on the carboxamide nitrogen. Examples include:

(I) AB-CHMINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide);

(II) AB-FUBINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide);

(III) AB-PINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide);

(IV) 5F AB-PINACA, also known as:

(aa) N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide); or

(bb) 5-fluoro AB-PINACA;

(V) ADB-FUBINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1-H-indazole-3-carboxamide);

(VI) ADB-PINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-l-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide);

(VII) 5F ADB-PINACA, also known as:

(aa) N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide); or

(bb) 5-fluoro ADB-PINACA;

(VIII) FUB-AMB, also known as:

(aa) methyl (1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl)-L-valinate;

(bb) AMB-FUBINACA; or

(cc) MMB-FUBINACA;

(IX) 5-fluoro-AMB (also known as (S)-methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-lH-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate);

(X) MAB-CHMINACA (also known as N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide );

(XI) MMB CHMINACA, also known as:

(aa) methyl (S)-2-(l-(cyclohexylmethyl)-IH-indole-3-carboxamido )-3,3-dimethylbutanoate; or

(bb) MDMB-CHMICA;

(XII) 5F MN-18, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-N-1-naphthalenyl-IH-indazole-3-carboxamide; or

(bb) 5-fluoro MN-18;

(XIII) 5F-APINACA, also known as:

(aa) 5-fluoro-APINACA

(bb) 5F-AKB-48;

(cc) 5F-AKB48;

(dd) N-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide; or

(ee) N-(1-adamantyl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide); and

(XIV) APINACA, also known as:

(aa) AKB-48;

(bb) AKB48;

(cc) 1-pentyl-N-tricyclo[3.3.l .13,7]dec-1-yl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide; or

(dd) N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-lH-indazole-3-carboxamide;

(vi) Cyclohexylphenols: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol by substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent. Examples include:

(I) CP 47,497 (also known as 2-[(1S,3R)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol);

(II) CP 47,497 C8 homologue, also known as:

(aa) rel-2-[(1S,3R)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methylnonan-2-yl)phenol; or

(bb) Cannabicyclohexanol;

(III) CP 55,490;

(IV) CP 55,940 (also known as 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]-phenol); and

(V) CP 56,667;

(vii) Cyclopropanoylindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-(cyclopropylmethanoyl)indole, 3-(cyclopropylmethanone)indole, 3-(cyclobutylmethanone)indole or 3-(cyclopentylmethanone)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, and whether or not substituted on the cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or cyclopentyl rings to any extent. Cyclopropanoylindoles include cyclopropylmethanone indoles, as well as other cycloalkanemethanones, whether or not substituted at the nitrogen atom on the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, and whether or not substituted on the cycloalkane ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) A-796,260, also known as:

(aa) [1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)-methanone; or

(bb) A-796260;

(II) A-834,735, also known as:

(aa) [1-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)methyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)-methanone; or

(bb) A-834735;

(III) AB-034 (also known as [1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-1H-indole-3-yl]-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone);

(IV) UR-144 (also known as 1-pentyl-3-(2, 2, 3, 3-tetramethylcyclopropoyl)indole);

(V) 5-bromo-UR-144, also known as:

(aa) ​[1-(5-bromopentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl](2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)-methanone; or

(bb) UR-144 N-(5-bromopentyl) analog;

(VI) 5-chloro-UR-144, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-chloropentyl)-3-(2, 2, 3, 3-tetramethylcyclopropoyl)indole; or

(bb) 5Cl-UR-144;

(VII) XLR11, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2,2,3, 3-tetramethylcyclopropoyl)indole;

(bb) 5-FUR-144; or

(cc) 5-fluoro UR-144; and

(VIII) FUB-144 (also known as [1-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-lH-indol-3-yl](2,2,3 ,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone);

(viii) Hexahydrodibenzopyrans: Any compound containing or structurally derived from Hexahydrodibenzopyrans, whether or not substituted in the tricyclic ring system, except where contained in cannabis or cannabis resin;

(ix) Indazole Ester (also known as Carboxylate indazole): Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-carboxylate-indazoles, whether or not substituted in the indazole ring to any extent or substituted to any degree on the carboxylate, whether or not substituted to any extent in the indazole ring or on the carboxylate oxygen. Examples of indazole esters include 5-fluoro SDB-005, also known as:

(I) naphthalen-1-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylate; or

(II) 5F SDB-005;

(x) Indole Amides: Any compound containing or structurally derived from or containing a 1H-Indole-3-carboxamide structure with or without substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3- morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group, whether or not substituted at the carboxamide group by an adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, benzyl, quinolinyl, cycloalkyl, 1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-amino-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl or pyrrole group and whether or not further substituted in the indole, adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, pyrrole, quninolinyl, or cycloalkyl rings to any extent. Indole amides include:

(I) Adamantylamidoindoles, or any compound containing or structurally derived from an N-(adamantyl)-indole-3-carboxamide structure, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the adamantyl ring to any extent;

(II) Adamantylindoles, or any compound containing or structurally derived from an N-(adamantyl)-indole-3-carboxamide with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, and whether or not substituted on the adamantyl ring to any extent;

(III) 5F ABICA, also known as:

(aa) (S)-N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide;

(bb) N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide; or

(cc) 5-fluoro ABICA;

(IV) ADBICA (also known as N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide));

(V) 5F-ADBICA, also known as:

(aa) N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide; or

(bb) 5-fluoro-ADBICA;

(VI) NNE1 (also known as N-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide);

(VII) 5F-NNE1, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-N-(naphthalene-1-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide); or

(bb) 5-fluoro-NNE1;

(VIII) SDB-006 (also known as N-benzyl-1-pentyl-1H- indole-3-carboxamide);

(IX) 5F-SDB-006, also known as:

(aa) N-benzyl-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide); or

(bb) 5-fluoro-SDB-006;

(X) 2NE 1, also known as:

(aa) APICA;

(bb) JWH 018 adamantyl carboxamide; or

(cc) 1-pentyl-N-tricyclo[3.3. l .13, 7]dec-1-yl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide;

(XI) STS-135, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-N-tricyclo[3.3. l. l 3, 7]dec-1-yl-l H-indole-3-carboxamide;

(bb) N-adamantyl-l-fluoropentylindole-3-Carboxamide;

(cc) 5F-APICA; or

(dd) 5-fluoro-APICA;

(XII) SDB-006 (also known as N-benzyl-1-pentyl-lH-indole-3-carboxamide); and

(XIII) 5-fluoro-MDMB-PICA (also known as N-[[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl]-3-methyl-L-valine, methyl ester);

(xi) Indole Esters: Any compound containing or structurally derived from a 1H-Indole-3-carboxylate structure with or without substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group, whether or not substituted at the carboxylate group by an adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, benzyl, quinolinyl, cycloalkyl, 1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-amino-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, 1-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl or pyrrole group and whether or not further substituted in the indole, adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, pyrrole, quinolinyl, or cycloalkyl rings to any extent. Indole esters may also be referred to as Quinolinylindolecarboxylates. Indole esters include:

(I) Quinolinyl ester indoles, or any compound containing or structurally derived from Quinolinyl ester indoles, being any compound containing or structurally derived from 1H-indole-3carboxylic acid-8-quinolinyl ester, whether or not substituted in the indole ring to any extent or the quinolone ring to any extent;

(II) BB-22, also known as:

(aa) 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-8-quinolinyl ester-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid;

(bb) quinolin-8-yl 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate; or

(cc) QUCHIC;

(III) FDU-PB-22 (also known as naphthalen-1-yl 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate);

(IV) FUB-PB-22, also known as:

(aa) 1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid, 8-quinolinyl ester; or

(bb) Quinolin-8-yl 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate;

(V) NM2201, also known as:

(aa) naphthalen-1-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate; or

(bb) CBL-2201;

(VI) PB-22, also known as:

(aa) 1-pentyl-8-quinolinyl ester-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid;

(bb) quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate;

(cc) 8-Quinolinyl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate; or

(dd) "QUPIC"; and

(VII) 5F-PB-22, also known as:

(aa) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-8-quinolinyl ester-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid;

(bb) quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate;

(cc) 8-Quinolinyl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate;

(dd) 5-fluoro-PB-22; or

(ee) 5-fluoro QUPIC;

(xii) Naphthoylindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent, including the following: AM-678, AM-1220, AM-1221, AM-1235, AM-2232, EAM-2201, JWH-004, JWH-007, JWH-009, JWH-011, JWH-015, JWH-016, JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-020, JWH-022, JWH-046, JWH-047, JWH-048, JWH-049, JWH-050, JWH-070, JWH-071, JWH-072, JWH-073, JWH-076, JWH-079, JWH-080, JWH-081, JWH-082, JWH-094, JWH-096, JWH-098, JWH-116, JWH-120, JWH-122, JWH-148, JWH-149, JWH-164, JWH-166, JWH-180, JWH-181, JWH-182, JWH-189, JWH-193, JWH-198, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-211, JWH-212, JWH-213, JWH-234, JWH-235, JWH-236, JWH-239, JWH-240, JWH-241, JWH-242, JWH-258, JWH-262, JWH-386, JWH-387, JWH-394, JWH-395, JWH-397, JWH-398, JWH-399, JWH-400, JWH-412, JWH-413, JWH-414, JWH-415, JWH-424, MAM-2201, WIN 55-212. Napthoylindoles also include:

(I) AM-2201 (also known as (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole); and

(II) WIN 55,212-2, also known as:

(aa) (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone; or

(bb) [2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[(1,2,3-de)-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone);

(xiii) Naphthoylnaphthalenes: Any compound containing or structurally derived from naphthalene-1-yl-(naphthalene-1-yl) methanone with substitutions on either of the naphthalene rings to any extent. Naphthoylnaphthalenes include CB-13 (also known as CRA-13 or 1-naphthalenyl[4-(pentylox)-1-naphthalenyl]-methanone);

(xiv) Naphthoylpyrroles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent, including the following: JWH-030, JWH-031, JWH-145, JWH-146, JWH-147, JWH-150, JWH-156, JWH-243, JWH-244, JWH-245, JWH-246, JWH-292, JWH-293, JWH-307, JWH-308, JWH-309, JWH-346, JWH-348, JWH-363, JWH-364, JWH-365, JWH-367, JWH-368, JWH-369, JWH-370, JWH-371, JWH-373, JWH-392;

(xv) Naphthylamidoindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from a N-(naphthyl)-indole-3-carboxamide structure, whether or not further substituted to any extent in the indole ring or in the naphthyl ring;

(xvi) Naphthylmethyl Indoles: Any compound containing orstructurally derived from 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane structure, also known as napthylmethylindoles, with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2- (4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, l-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) JWH-175 (also known as 3-(1-naphthalenylmethyl)-1-pentyl-1 H-indole );

(II) JWH-184 (also known as 3-[(4-methyl-1-naphthalenyl)methyl)-1-pentyl-l H-indole);

(III) JWH-185 (also known as 3-[(4-methoxy-1-naphthalenyl)methyl]-1 -pentyl-1 H-indole);

(IV) JWH-192 (also known as (1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl)-4-methylnaphthalen-1-ylmethane);

(V) JWH-194 (also known as 2-methyl-1-pentyl-lH-indol-3-yl-( 4-methyl-1-naphthyl)methane);

(VI) JWH-195 (also known as (1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl)-naphthalen-1-ylmethane);

(VII) JWH-196 (also known as 2-methyl-3-(1-naphthalenylmethyl)-1-pentyl-lH-Indole);

(VIII) JWH-197 (also known as 2-methyl-l-pentyl-lH-indol-3-yl-( 4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)methane); and

(IX) JWH-199 (also known as (1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl)-4-methoxynaphthalen-1-ylmethane);

(xvii) Naphthylmethylindenes: Any compound containing or structurally derived from a naphthylideneindene structure or that is structurally derived from 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)indene with substitution at the 3-position of the indene ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-( 4-morpholinyl)ethyl, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples include:

(I) JWH-171;

(II) JWH-176 (also known as 1-[(E)-(3-pentyl-1 H-inden-1-ylidene)methyl]-naphthalene); and

(III) JWH-220;

(xviii) Phenylacetylindoles: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3-phenylacetylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring with alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, or 1-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, 1-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, or (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent, including: JWH-167, JWH-201, JWH-202, JWH-203, JWH-204, JWH-205, JWH-206, JWH-207, JWH-208, JWH-209, JWH-237, JWH-248, JWH-249, JWH-250, JWH-251, JWH-253, JWH-302, JWH-303, JWH-304, JWH-305, JWH-306, JWH-311, JWH-312, JWH-313, JWH-314, JWH-315, JWH-316, RCS-8, SR-18, and Cannabipiperidiethanone (also known as 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-[1-[(1-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1H-indol-3-yl]-ethanone);

(xix) Quinolinoyl pyrazole: Any compound containing or structurally derived from Quinolinoyl pyrazole carboxylate (also known as Quinolinyl fluoropentyl fluorophenyl pyrazole carboxylate);

(xx) Tetrahydrobenzochromen: Any compound containing or structurally derived from (6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6, 6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol. Includes tetrahydrodibenzopyrans, or any compound containing or structurally derived from tetrahydrodibenzopyrans, whether or not substituted in the tricyclic ring system, but does not include tetrahydrodibenzopyrans that are contained in cannabis or cannabis resin. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) AM-087 (also known as (6aR,10aR)-3-(2-methyl-6-bromohex-2-yl)- 6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol);

(II) AM-411 (also known as (6aR,10aR)-3-(1-adamantyl)-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol);

(III) HU-210, also known as:

(aa) 3-(1,1'-dimethylheptyl)-6aR,7,10,10aR-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-9-methanol;

(bb) [(6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a- tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol;

(cc) 1,1-Dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol; or

(dd) 1,1-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxy-delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol;

(IV) HU-211, also known as:

(aa) 3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6aS,7,10,10aS-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-9-methanol;

(bb) (6aS,10aS)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol;

(cc) (6aS,10aS)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol; or

(dd) "Dexanabinol";

(V) HU-243, also known as

(aa) (6aR,8S,9S,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-8,9-ditritio-7,8,10,10a-tetrahydro-6aH-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol; or

(bb) 3-dimethylheptyl-11-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol;

(VI) JWH-051 (also known as (6aR,10aR)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-9-yl)methanol);

(VII) JWH-133 (also known as (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-Dimethylbutyl) -6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran); and

(VIII) JWH-359 (also known as (6aR,10aR)- 1-methoxy-6,6,9-trimethyl- 3-[(2R)-1,1,2-trimethylbutyl]- 6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromene);

(xxi) Δ8 Tetrahydrocannabinol: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 11-hydroxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol structure, also known as dibenzopyrans, with further substitution on the 3-pentyl group by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkyethyl, 1-(n-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group;

(xxii) Tetramethylcyclopropane-thiazole carboxamides: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-N-(thiazol-2-ylidene)cyclopropanecarboxamide by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the thiazole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, alkenyl, haloalkenyl, alkoxy, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, (N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)alkyl, (4-tetrahydropyran)alkyl, or 2- (4-morpholinyl)alkyl, whether or not further substituted in the thiazole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the tetramethylcyclopropyl ring to any extent, including the group Tetramethylcyclopropyl thiazoles, or any compound containing or structurally derived from 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-N-(thiazol- 2-ylidene)cyclopropanecarboxamide by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the thiazole ring, whether or not further substituted in the thiazole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted in the tetramethylcyclopropyl ring to any extent. Tetramethylcyclopropane-thiazole carboxamides also include A-836,339, also known as:

(I) [N(Z)]-N-[3-(2-methoxyethyl)-4,5-dimethyl-2(3H)-thiazolylidene]-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-cyclopropanecarboxamide;

(II) N-[3-(2-Methoxyethyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide: and

(III) A-836339;

(xxiii) Benzodihydropyrans: Any compound containing or structurally derived from benzodihydropyrans, by substitution on the benzyl ring by hydroxy, alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, cycloalkyl, alkene, haloalkene, cycloalkane, or by substitution on the pyran ring by alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkene, or cycloalkoxy group to any extent. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) AM-855 (also known as (4aR,12bR)-8-hexyl-2,5,5-trimethyl-1,4,4a,8,9, 10,11,12b-octahydronaphtho[3,2-c]isochromen-l 2-ol);

(II) AM-905 (also known as (6aR,9R, l0aR)-3-[(E)-hept-1-enyl]-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-6a, 7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol);

(III) AM-906 (also known as (6aR,9R,10aR)-3-[(Z)-hept-1-enyl]-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-6a, 7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol);

(IV) AM-2389 (also known as (6aR,9R,10aR)-3-(l-hexylcyclobut-l-yl)-6a, 7,8,9,10,1Oa-hexahydro-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d)pyran-1,9 diol);and

(V) JWH-057 (also known as (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,l-dimethylheptyl)-6a, 7, 10, 10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran); and

(xxiv) Benzimidazole Ketone: Any compound containing or structurally derived from [IH-indazol-3-yl](l-naphthyl)methanone structure with or without substitution at either nitrogen atom of the indazole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, cyanoalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl, 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl, l-(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl, l-(N-methyl-3-morpholinyl)methyl, (tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methyl, 1-methylazepanyl, phenyl, or halophenyl group, with substitution at the carbon of the methanone group by an adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, benzyl, quinolinyl, cycloalkyl, l-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, l-amino-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, l-methoxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl, l-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl or pyrrole group, and whether or not further substituted in the benzimidazole, adamantyl, naphthyl, phenyl, pyrrole, quinolinyl, or cycloalkyl rings to any extent. Examples of this structural class include:

(I) THJ-2201 (also known as [l-(5-Fluoropentyl)-lH-indazol-3-yl](l-naphthyl)methanone); and

(II) THJ-018 (also known as l-naphthalenyl(l-pentyl-IH-indazol-3-yl)-methanone);

(B) Unclassified Synthetic Cannabimimetic Agents:

(i) AM-356, also known as:

(I) AM356;

(II) arachidonyl-1'-hydroxy-2'-propylamide;

(III) N-(2-hydroxy-1R-methylethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide;

(IV) (R)-(+)-Arachidonyl-1'-Hydroxy-2'-Propylamide;

(V) Methanandamide; or

(VI) R-1 Methanandamide;

(ii) BAY38-7271 (also known as (-)-(R)-3-(2-Hydroxymethylindanyl -4-oxy) phenyl-4,4,4-trifluorobutyl-1-sulfonate);

(iii) CP 50,556-1, also known as:

(I) 9-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[5-phenylpentan-2-yl]oxy-5,6, 6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthridin-1-yl]acetate;

(II) [(6S,6aR,9R,10aR)-9-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(2R)-5- phenylpentan-2-yl]oxy-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-; octahydrophenanthridin-1-yl] acetate;

(III) [9-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[5-phenylpentan-2-yl]oxy-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthridin-1-yl]acetate; or

(IV) "Levonantradol";

(iv) HU-308 (also known as (91R,2R,5R)-2-[2,6-dimethoxy-4- (2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl]-7,7-dimethyl-4-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-enyl]methanol);

(v) HU-331 (also known as 3-hydroxy-2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6- (1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione);

(vi) JTE-907 (also known as N-(benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl) –7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-pentyloxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide);

(vii) Mepirapim (also known as (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) Methanone);

(viii) URB597 (also known as [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl] –N-Cyclohexylcarbamate);

(ix) URB602, also known as:

(I) [1,1'-Biphenyl]-3-yl-carbamic acid, cyclohexyl ester; or

(II) cyclohexyl [1,1'-biphenyl]-3-ylcarbamate;

(x) URB754 (also known as 6-methyl-2-[(4-methylphenyl)amino] -4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one); and

(xi) URB937 (also known as 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl Cyclohexylcarbamate).

(7) Synthetic opioids, which includes, unless specifically exempted, unless listed in another schedule, or unless approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a drug, any material, mixture, preparation, any compound structurally derived from, or that contains any quantity of the following synthetic substances, their salts, isomers, homologues, analogues and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers, homologues, analogues, and salts of isomers, homologues, and analogues is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Classified Synthetic Opioids:

(i) Fentanyls: Any compound, other than carbomethoxyfentanyls, containing or structurally derived from N-(1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide, whether or not substituted on the methanone group with an alkyl, alkene, halo, haloalkyl, benzyl, halobenzyl, alkenyl, haloalkenyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, furanyl, or alkoxy, and whether or not substituted on either phenyl ring with an alkyl, halo, cycloalkyl, or alkoxy group. Examples of fentanyls include:

(I) Fentanyl (also known as N-(1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide);

(II) Furanylfentanyl (also known as N-Phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]furan-2-carboxamide);

(III) Acetylfentanyl (also known as N-(1-Phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylacetamide);

(IV) Acrylfentanyl (also known as N-Phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]prop-2-enamide);

(V) Parafluorofentanyl, also known as:

(aa) 4-fluorofentanyl; or

(bb) N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]propanamide;

(VI) Butyryl fentanyl, also known as:

(aa) Butyr fentanyl;

(bb) NIH 10486; or

(cc) N-phenyl-N-[l-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-butanamide; and

(VII) para-Fluorobutyryl fentanyl, also known as:

(aa) 4-FPF;

(bb) p-FBF;

(cc) 4-Fluorobutyryl fentanyl;

(dd) p-Fluorobutyryl fentanyl; or

(ee) N-( 4-fluorophenyl)-N-[ l -(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-butanamide);

(ii) Carbomethoxyfentanyls: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 4-((1-oxopropyl)-phenylamino )-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid methyl ester, whether or not substituted on either phenyl ring with an alkyl, halo, cycloalkyl, or alkoxy group. Carbomethoxyfentanyls include:

(I) Carfentanil, also known as:

(aa) 4-Carbomethoxy Fentanyl;

(bb) 4-carbomethoxy Fentanyl; or

(cc) 4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester;

(II) Norcarfentanil (also known as: 4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester; and

(III) N-methyl Norcarfentanil, also known as:

(aa) N-methyl Carfentanil;

(bb) N-methyl Norremifentanil;

(cc) N-methyl Remifentanil; or

(dd) 1-methyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester; and

(iii) Benzamides: Any compound containing or structurally derived from 3,4-Dichloro-N-[(1 R,2R)-2-(dimethylamino )cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring with an alkyl, halo, cycloalkyl, or alkoxy group, and whether or not substituted with an alkyl or hydrogen on the nitrogen of the amide, and whether or not substituted on the nitrogen of the amide with an alkyl, cycloalkyl, tertiary amine, or combination thereof. Benzamides include:

(I) U-47700 (also known as 3,4-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide); and

(II) AH-7921 (also known as 3,4-dichloro-N-[[l-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]methyl]benzamide).

(B) Unclassified Synthetic Opioids:

(i) W-18 (also known as 4-chloro-N-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-piperidinylidene]-benzenesulfonamide);

(ii) Sufentanil (also known as N-[4-(methoxymethyl)-1-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinyl]-N-phenyl-propanamide);

(iii) Alfentanil (also known as N-[1-[2-(4-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)ethyl]-4-(methoxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N-phenyl-propanamide);

(iv) Remifentanil (also known as 4-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropanoic acid, methyl ester);

(v) Lofentanil (also known as methyl (3R,4S)-3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-(N-propanoylanilino)piperidine-4-carboxylate);

(vi) Benzyl Carfentanil (also known as methyl 1-benzyl-4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidine-4-carboxylate); and

(vii) N-methyl-Norcarfentanil (also known as 1-methyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-4-piperidinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester).


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 204, 28 DCR 3081; amended by rule, 39 DCR 1882; amended by rule, Dec. 7, 1994, 41 DCR 7967; May 9, 2000, D.C. Law 13-99, § 2(a), 47 DCR 791; Dec. 10, 2009, D.C. Law 18-88, § 225, 56 DCR 7413; June 19, 2013, D.C. Law 19-320, § 301(b), 60 DCR 3390; Mar. 13, 2019, D.C. Law 22-243, § 2(b), 66 DCR 937.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-514.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 7-3002, § 44-1201, § 48-901.02, § 48-902.01, § 48-902.02, § 48-1004, and § 50-2206.13.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 13-99 corrected the way in which two chemicals were stated in subsec. (3) and added provisions contained in (X) and (Y) in subsec. (3).

D.C. Law 18-88, in par. (5), deleted “and” from the end of subpar. (A), substituted “; and” for a period at the end of subpar. (B), and added subpar. (C).

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-320 added (3)(Z) through (3)(KK); added (4)(C); inserted “their analogues or derivatives and” in the introductory language of (5); added (5)(D) through (5)(H); and made related changes.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(b) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Act 22-550, Dec. 26, 2018, 66 DCR 225).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(b) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Emergency Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Act 22-464, Oct. 5, 2018, 65 DCR 11377).

For temporary (90-day) amendment of section, see § 2 of the Uniform Controlled Substances Emergency Amendment Act of 1999 (D.C. Act 13-96, June 15, 1999, 46 DCR 5640).

For temporary (90-day) amendment of section, see § 2 of the Uniform Controlled Substances Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 1999 (D.C. Act 13-144, October 18, 1999, 46 DCR 9904).

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 225 of Omnibus Public Safety and Justice Emergency Amendment Act of 2009 (D.C. Act 18-181, August 6, 2009, 56 DCR 6903).

For temporary (90 day) amendment of section, see § 225 of Omnibus Public Safety and Justice Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2009 (D.C. Act 18-227, October 21, 2009, 56 DCR 8668).

For temporary amendment of section, see § 301(b) of the Omnibus Public Safety and Justice Amendment Act of 2012 (D.C. Act 19-599, January 14, 2013, 60 DCR 1017).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 301(b) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendment Congressional Review Emergency Act of 2013 (D.C. Act 20-44, April 1, 2013, 60 DCR 5381, 20 DCSTAT 1281).

Temporary Legislation

For temporary (225 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(b) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Temporary Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Law 22-204, Feb. 22, 2019, 65 DCR 12338).

For temporary (225 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(b) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Temporary Amendment Act of 2016 (D.C. Law 21-131, July 1, 2016, 63 DCR 7110).

For temporary (225 day) amendment of section, see § 2 of Uniform Controlled Substances Temporary Amendment Act of 1999 (D.C. Law 13-34, October 7, 1999, law notification 47 DCR 3423).


§ 48–902.05. Schedule II tests.

The Mayor shall place a substance in Schedule II if the Mayor finds that:

(1) The substance has high potential for abuse;

(2) The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or the District of Columbia, or currently accepted medical use, with severe restrictions; and

(3) The abuse of the substance may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 205, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-515.


§ 48–902.06. Schedule II enumerated.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule II unless and until removed therefrom pursuant to § 48-902.01:

(1) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(A) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate, excluding apomorphine, dextrorphan, nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, and their respective salts, but including the following:

(i) Raw opium;

(ii) Opium extracts;

(iii) Opium fluid extracts;

(iv) Powdered opium;

(v) Granulated opium;

(vi) Tincture of opium;

(vii) Codeine;

(viii) Ethylmorphine;

(ix) Etorphine Hydrochloride;

(x) Hydrocodone;

(xi) Metopon;

(xii) Morphine;

(xiii) Oxycodone;

(xiv) Oxymorphone;

(xv) Thebaine;

(xvi) Hydromorphone;

(xvii) Dihydrocodeine;

(xviii) Sufentanil;

(xix) Alfentanil; and

(xx) Carfentanil;

(B) Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium;

(C) Opium poppy and poppy straw;

(D) Coca leaves, except coca leaves or extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, or derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed; cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; or any compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any substance referred to in this paragraph;

(E) Concentrate of poppy straw (the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid, or powder form which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy);

(F) Hashish; and

(G) Synthetic Tetrahydrocannabinols: Chemical equivalents of the substances contained in the plant, or in the resinous extractives of Cannabis, and synthetic substances, derivatives, and their isomers with similar chemical structure and pharmacological activity such as the following:

(i) Delta 1 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and their optical isomers;

(ii) Delta 6 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and their optical isomers; or

(iii) Delta 3, 4 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and its optical isomers (compounds of these structures, regardless of numerical designation of atomic positions covered);

(2) Unless specifically excepted or unless in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of these isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation, dextrorphan excepted:

(A) Alphaprodine;

(B) Anileridine;

(C) Bezitramide;

(D) Biphetamine;

(E) Diphenoxylate;

(F) Eskatrol;

(G) Fentanyl;

(H) Fetamine;

(I) Isomethadone;

(J) Levo-alphacetylmethadol, also known as levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, or LAAM;

(K) Levomethorphan;

(L) Levorphanol;

(M) Metazocine;

(N) Methadone;

(O) Methadone—Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino4, 4-diphenyl butane;

(P) Moramide—Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenyl- propane-carboxylic acid;

(Q) Pethidine (meperidine);

(R) Pethidine—Intermediate — A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4- phenylpiperidine;

(S) Pethidine—Intermediate — B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine- 4-carboxylate;

(T) Pethidine—Intermediate — C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperdine- 4-carboxylic acid;

(U) Phenazocine;

(V) Piminodine;

(W) Racemethorphan; and

(X) Racemorphan;

(3) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

(A) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers;

(B) Methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers;

(C) Phenmetrazine and its salts;

(D) Methylphenidate and its salts;

(E) Repealed.

(F) Amphetamine/methamphetamine immediate precursor: Phenyl acetone (Phenyl-2-propanone), P2P; and

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Methagualone;

(B) Amobarbital;

(C) Secobarbital;

(D) Pentobarbital;

(E) Phencyclidine;

(F) Phencyclidine immediate precursors:

(i) 1-phenyleyclohexylamine

(ii) 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC);

(G) Dronabinol;

(H) Nabilone; and

(I) Glutethimide.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 206, 28 DCR 3081; amended by rule, 32 DCR 1097; June 13, 1990, D.C. Law 8-138, § 2(b), 37 DCR 2638; amended by rule, 39 DCR 1882; amended by rule, Dec. 7, 1994, 41 DCR 7967; June 19, 2013, D.C. Law 19-320, § 301(c), 60 DCR 3390.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-516.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 7-3002, § 44-1201, § 48-853.01, § 48-901.02, § 48-902.01, § 48-902.02, and § 48-1004.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-320 substituted “Dronabinol” for “Dronabianol” in (4)(G).

Emergency Legislation

For temporary amendment of (4)(G), see § 301(c) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendments Emergency Amendment Act of 2012 (D.C. Act 19-599, January 14, 2013, 60 DCR 1017).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 301(c) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendment Congressional Review Emergency Act of 2013 (D.C. Act 20-44, April 1, 2013, 60 DCR 5381, 20 DCSTAT 1281).

Editor's Notes

Mayor to implement public information program: See Historical and Statutory Notes following § 48-901.02.


§ 48–902.07. Schedule III tests.

The Mayor shall place a substance in Schedule III if the Mayor finds that:

(1) The substance has a potential for abuse less than the substances listed in Schedules I and II;

(2) The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or the District of Columbia; and

(3) The abuse of the substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 207, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-517.


§ 48–902.08. Schedule III enumerated.

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule III, unless and until removed therefrom pursuant to § 48-902.01:

(1) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Those compounds, mixtures, or preparations in dosage unit form containing any stimulant substances listed in Schedule II which compounds, mixtures, or preparations were listed on August 25, 1971, as excepted compounds under § 1308.32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and any other drug of the quantitative composition shown in that list for those drugs or which is the same except that it contains a lesser quantity of controlled substances;

(B) Benzphetamine;

(C) Chlorphentermine;

(D) Chlortermine;

(E) Mazindol; and

(F) Phendimetrazine;

(2) Unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

(A) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing:

(i) Amobarbital;

(ii) Secobarbital; or

(iii) Pentobarbital; or any salt thereof and 1 or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in any schedule;

(B) Any suppository dosage form containing:

(i) Amobarbital;

(ii) Secobarbital;

(iii) Pentobarbital; or any salt of any of these drugs and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for marketing only as a suppository;

(C) Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid:

(i) Chlorhexadol;

(ii) Rescheduled to Schedule II;

(iii) Lysergic acid;

(iv) Lysergic acid amide;

(v) Methyprylon;

(vi) Sulfondiethylmethane;

(vii) Sulfonethylmethane;

(viii) Sulfonmethane;

(ix) Tiletamine & Zolazepam Combination Product; and

(x) Vinbarbital;

(3) Nalorphine;

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

(A) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(B) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams dosage unit, with 1 or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(C) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a 4-fold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(D) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with 1 or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(E) Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with 1 or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(F) Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with 1 or more ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(G) Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with 1 or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts; and

(H) Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with 1 or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(5) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of the following substances, drug, or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens, progesterons, and corticorsteroids) that promotes muscle growth and includes:

(A) Boldenone;

(B) Chlortestosterone (4-chlortestosterone);

(C) Clostebol;

(D) Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone;

(E) Dihydrotestosterone (4-dihydrotestosterone);

(F) Drostanolone;

(G) Ethylestrenol;

(H) Fluoxymestorone;

(I) Formebulone (formebolone);

(J) Mesterolone;

(K) Methandienone;

(L) Methandranone;

(M) Methandriol;

(N) Methandrostenolone;

(O) Methenolone;

(P) Methyltestosterone;

(Q) Mibolerone;

(R) Nandrolone;

(S) Norethandrolone;

(T) Oxandrolone;

(U) Oxymesterone;

(V) Oxymetholone;

(W) Stanolone;

(X) Stanozolol;

(Y) Testolactone;

(Z) Testosterone;

(AA) Trenbolone; and

(BB) Any salt, ester or isomer of a drug or substance described or listed in this paragraph, if that salt, ester, or isomer promotes muscle growth. Except such term does not include an anabolic steroid which is expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species and which has been approved by Secretary of Health and Human Services for such administration. If any person prescribes, dispenses or distributes such steroid for human use such person shall be considered to have prescribed, dispensed or distributed an anabolic steroid within the meaning of this paragraph; and

(6) Cannabis.

(7) Repealed.

(b) The Mayor may except by rule any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant substance listed in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of this section from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains 1 or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are included therein in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 208, 28 DCR 3081; amended by rule, 39 DCR 1882; amended by rule Dec. 7, 1994, 41 DCR 7967; June 8, 2001, D.C. Law 13-300, § 2(a), 47 DCR 7037; June 19, 2013, D.C. Law 19-320, § 301(d), 60 DCR 3390; Mar. 13, 2019, D.C. Law 22-243, § 2(c), 66 DCR 937.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-518.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 7-3002, § 44-1201, § 48-853.01, § 48-902.01, § 48-902.02, and § 48-1004.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 13-300, in subsec. (a), deleted “and” at the end of par. (4)(H), substituted “; and” for the period at the end of par. (5)(BB), and added par. (6).

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-320 added (a)(7); and made related changes.

Emergency Legislation

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(c) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Congressional Review Emergency Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Act 22-550, Dec. 26, 2018, 66 DCR 225).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(c) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Emergency Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Act 22-464, Oct. 5, 2018, 65 DCR 11377).

For temporary amendment of (a), see § 301(d) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendments Emergency Amendment Act of 2012 (D.C. Act 19-599, January 14, 2013, 60 DCR 1017).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 301(d) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendment Congressional Review Emergency Act of 2013 (D.C. Act 20-44, April 1, 2013, 60 DCR 5381, 20 DCSTAT 1281).

Temporary Legislation

For temporary (225 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(c) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Temporary Amendment Act of 2018 (D.C. Law 22-204, Feb. 22, 2019, 65 DCR 12338).

For temporary (225 days) amendment of this section, see § 2(c) of Revised Synthetics Abatement and Full Enforcement Drug Control Temporary Amendment Act of 2016 (D.C. Law 21-131, July 1, 2016, 63 DCR 7110).


§ 48–902.09. Schedule IV tests.

The Mayor shall place a substance in Schedule IV if the Mayor finds that:

(1) The substance has a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III;

(2) The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or the District of Columbia; and

(3) The abuse of the substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the substances in Schedule III.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 209, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-519.


§ 48–902.10. Schedule IV enumerated.

(a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule IV, unless and until removed therefrom pursuant to § 48-902.01:

(1) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Barbital;

(B) Chloral betaine;

(C) Chloral hydrate;

(D) Chlordiazepoxide;

(E) Clonazepam;

(F) Clorazepate;

(G) Dextropropoxyphene;

(H) Diazepam;

(I) Ethchlorvynol;

(J) Ethinamate;

(K) Flurazepam;

(L) Lorazepam;

(M) Mebutamate;

(N) Meprobamate;

(O) Methohexital;

(P) Methylphenobarbital (mephobarbital);

(Q) Oxazepam;

(R) Paraldehyde;

(S) Petrichloral;

(T) Phenobarbital;

(U) Prazepam;

(V) Alprazolam;

(W) Bromazepam;

(X) Camazepam;

(Y) Clobazam;

(Z) Clotiazepam;

(AA) Cloxazolam;

(BB) Delorazepam;

(CC) Estazolam;

(DD) Ethyl loflazepate;

(EE) Fludiazepam;

(FF) Flunitrazepam;

(GG) Halazepam;

(HH) Haloxazolam;

(II) Ketazolam;

(JJ) Loprazolam;

(KK) Lormetazepam;

(LL) Medazepam;

(MM) Midazolam;

(NN) Nimetazepam;

(OO) Nitrazepam;

(PP) Oxazolam;

(QQ) Omitted;

(RR) Pinazepam;

(SS) Quazepam;

(TT) Temazepam;

(UU) Tetrazepam;

(VV) Triazolam; and

(WW) Fospropofol;

(2) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, such as Fenfluramine;

(3) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(A) Diethylpropion;

(B) Phentermine;

(C) Pemoline (including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof);

(D) Cathine;

(E) Fencamfimin;

(F) Fenproporex;

(G) Mefenorex;

(H) Pipradrol; and

(I) SPA;

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts:

(A) Dextropropoxyphene (Alpha-(+)-4-dimethylamino-1), 2-diphenyl-1-3-methyl-2-propionoxybutane; and

(B) Pentazocine; and

(5) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof of not more than 1 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(b) The Mayor may except by rule any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any depressant substance listed in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains 1 or more active medicinal ingredients not having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are included therein in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which have a depressant effect on the central nervous system.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 210, 28 DCR 3081; amended by rule, 39 DCR 1882; June 19, 2013, D.C. Law 19-320, § 301(e), 60 DCR 3390.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-520.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 7-3002, § 44-1201, § 48-853.01, § 48-902.01, § 48-902.02, and § 48-1004.

Effect of Amendments

The 2013 amendment by D.C. Law 19-320 added (a)(1)(WW) and made related changes; and substituted “Cathine” for “Cathine” (made no change) in (a)(3)(D).

Emergency Legislation

For temporary amendment of (a), see § 301(e) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendments Emergency Amendment Act of 2012 (D.C. Act 19-599, January 14, 2013, 60 DCR 1017).

For temporary (90 days) amendment of this section, see § 301(e) of the Omnibus Criminal Code Amendment Congressional Review Emergency Act of 2013 (D.C. Act 20-44, April 1, 2013, 60 DCR 5381, 20 DCSTAT 1281).


§ 48–902.11. Schedule V tests.

The Mayor shall place a substance in Schedule V if the Mayor finds that:

(1) The substance has low potential for abuse relative to the controlled substances listed in Schedule IV;

(2) The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or the District of Columbia; and

(3) The substance has limited physical dependence or psychological dependence liability relative to the controlled substances listed in Schedule IV.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 211, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-521.


§ 48–902.12. Schedule V enumerated.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule V unless and until removed therefrom pursuant to § 48-902.01.

(1) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or salts thereof, which also contains 1 or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

(A) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(B) Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(C) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(D) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(E) Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit; and

(F) Not more than 0.5 milligrams of difenopin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

(2) Repealed;

(3) Deleted upon adoption of rule in 34 DCMR 4370 on July 10, 1987;

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs and their salts, as set forth below:

Buprenorphine;

(5) Prophylhexedrine; and

(6) Pyrovalerone.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 212, 28 DCR 3081; amended by rule, 39 DCR 1882; June 8, 2001, D.C. Law 13-300, § 2(b), 47 DCR 7037.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-522.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 7-3002, § 44-1201, § 48-853.01, § 48-902.01, § 48-902.02, and § 48-1004.

Effect of Amendments

D.C. Law 13-300 repealed par. (2) which had read: “(2) Cannabis;”.


§ 48–902.13. Revising and republishing of schedules.

The Mayor shall revise and republish the schedules semiannually for 2 years from August 5, 1981, and thereafter annually. The published schedules may include the brand or trade names of the substances controlled.


(Aug. 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 213, 28 DCR 3081.)

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 33-523.

Section References

This section is referenced in § 1-636.02.

Cross References

Effective date provisions, see § 1-636.02.


§ 48–902.14. Treatment of controlled substance analogues.

(a) A controlled substances analogue shall, to the extent intended for human consumption, be treated for the purposes of any District of Columbia law as a controlled substance in Schedule I.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the term “controlled analogue” means:

(1) a substance with a chemical structure that is substantially similar to the chemical structure of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II;

(2) A substance that has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central system of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II; or

(3) A substance that, with respect to a particular person, is represented to have or is intended to have a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to, or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in Schedule I or II.

(c) Such term does not include:

(1) A controlled substance;

(2) Any substance for which there is an approved new drug application;

(3) With respect to a particular person any substance, if an exemption is in effect for investigational use, for that person, under § 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, approved June 25, 1938 (52 Stat. 1052, 21 U.S.C. § 355) to the extent conduct with respect to such substance is pursuant to such exemption; or

(4) Any substance to the extent not intended for human consumption before such an exemption takes effect with respect to that substance.


(August 5, 1981, D.C. Law 4-29, § 214; as added May 9, 2000, D.C. Law 13-99, § 2(b), 47 DCR 791.)